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Chapter 9


The Sumerian-Hungarian Identity


    In the nineteenth century, Jules Oppert, François Lenormand, A. J. Sayce, Colonel Rawlinson and others acknowledged the linguistic connections between the Sumerians and the Hungarians, but they did not find a large enough number of cognates to prove their theory. Because of this, the Hungarian Academy of Science rejected their hypothesis that there was a Sumerian-Magyar connection. However János Galgóczy, Ede Somogyi, Ida Bobula, Zsigmond Varga, and Kálmán Gosztonyi of the Sorbonne University, Paris, have since researched the Sumerian/Hungarian connection and discovered over 2000 cognates and also grammatical similarities between the two languages.[1]

    Kálmán Gosztonyi states that the Hungarian language has only a secondary connection to the Finno-Ugric languages, The Finno-Ugric/Magyar connection was based on the names of eleven human body parts, which showed similarities. At the same time there are forty-five body parts, which are identical in the Hungarian and Sumerian languages. In addition, the Hungarian suffixes are almost all identical to the Sumerian. He says that there is one very wide disparity between the Hungarian and Finno-Ugric languages. In the Finno-Ugric languages, in the double digits, the "tens" take second place. In Sumerian and Hungarian, the "tens" precede the "ones".

    Dr. Gosztonyi also points out that in Ostyak, "man" is LUU, and in Zurjen, U. These Finno-Ugric languages must have taken the word from the ancient Magyar LU or the Sumerian LU. He found that among 53 Sumerian grammatical characteristics, 51 are identical to the Hungarian and only 21 are identical to the Finno-Ugric languages.[2]

     The linguistic connections between the Sumerians and the Ural-Altaic peoples were observed by Professor Samuel Noah Kramer: "The first Sumerian rulers kept up an unusually close, intimate connection with a city-state called ARATTA which was probably located in the Caspian Sea territory. The Sumerian language was an agglutinative language which to a certain extent reminds us of the Ural Altaic languages."[3]

     Not only are there linguistic similarities between the Hungarian and Sumerian languages, but there are also similarities in the customs, legends and religion of these two peoples. The present-day Hungarians still have the same custom as the ancient Magyars, and the Sumerians, of holding a festive wake for a deceased person. Friends and relatives gather at the house of the deceased where there is an abundance of food and drink and this becomes a festive occasion where everyone remembers the deeds of the deceased.

      One custom of the Sumerian soldiers was to throw a leopard skin loosely over one shoulder and go into battle brandishing a small battleaxe. The Magyars of Árpád had this same custom. Among the Hungarians, this use of the battleaxe persisted well into the twentieth century at the time of World War I. The Sumerian men wore trousers decorated with fringes and the women wore a headdress of pearls. Even today, among the country folk in Hungary, the same costume still exists. The Sumerian God of War and of the Storm was called HADDU. Árpád, when he lined up his men to enter the Carpathian Basin, according to the Chronicles, prayed to HADUR for protection. According to the Szekel legend, after Atilla's death, his son Csaba, who had fled, was supposed to return with some help, along the "Hadak utja", the route of God or the triumphal way, and every year they waited for him in the springtime. The Sumerians beheved in life after death. They believed that one of their gods, TAMMUZ (DUMUZIK or SUBA = Csaba) died and was resurrected. They celebrated his resurrection every year at the time of the New Year. They believed that he would return to earth, be born of a virgin mother, and would redeem the world.

    There must be some significance to the fact that the Sumerians called the wheel MAGGARU, a word that resembles the name Magyar. According to Ida Bobula, the name Magyar originated from the Sumerian word MAGGAR. MAG means "Magus" or "wise man" and AR means "flood" or "crowd". So MAG-GAR means "a large number of wise men". Similarly GAR in the name Hungar means a large number of Huns.

     The similarities between the customs, art, mythology, religion and language all indicate a close and long-lasting connection between the Magyars and the Sumerians or possibly that these were the same identical people. According to anthropologist, Lajos Bartucz, the Sumerians belonged to the Caucasian race but had some Mongoloid characteristics. He says that they were short and stocky, with small hands and feet and most of the men shaved their heads. Those who did not shave their heads wore their hair in three braids. They belonged to the brachycephalic group.[4]  In the early stages of archeological research, anthropology was not recognized as an important partner in the research and many skulls were destroyed. The large numbers of Sumerian skulls that were unearthed were not studied before they were destroyed and as a result we no longer have enough of them to make a clear and exact anthropological determination.

     I.E. T. Hamy tried to reconstruct the anthropological picture of the Sumerians from the remaining statues and reliefs. Sir Arthur Keith states that from his examination of the few remaining skulls, he concurs with the conclusions of Hamy.[5]  Hamy makes a clear distinction between the Sumerians and the Semitic types. The Semites were dolicephalic and bearded, while the Sumerians were brachycephalic, with mongoloid features, high cheekbones, and shaved face and head. Among the Sumerians, Hamy found a third component, which he called Armenoid (the Hittites). Roland Dixon wrote: "A short headed (brachycephalic) people migrated south in the dawn of ancient times."[6]  This was probably a group of people from the ancient Kőrős culture who wandered south as Etelka Toronyi and Adorján Magyar also stated. Most recently, John Dayton supported this theory.[7]

    Felix von Luschen writes that only a dreamer would state that the Sumerians belong to the Aryan race, because he would like to believe that the Aryans discovered writing.[8] According to Von Luschen, after the Semites conquered the Sumerians, one segment of the Sumerians remained in Mesopotamia, another segment migrated to Caucasia and others to the Turanian Plain, India and China. Francois Lenormand and others mention a Turanian Medea. According to Koenig, the original inhabitants of Medea could not have been Iranian because they called their god Huba.[9] (Huba was the name of a leader of one of the "nations" who came with Árpád into the Carpathian Basin.) One group of Sumerians migrated to India and settled in Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, which were excavated in 1946. We know that the Sumerians were outstanding astronomers and mathematicians, gold and silversmiths. They had an advanced legal system with laws protecting the weak and the state was based on the family unit. They used ceramics and cutlery. They were familiar with the wheel. They knew how to build an arch and a dome. They built cellars under their houses and were architects of hanging gardens. They developed irrigation systems and plumbing and built pyramids. They developed a system of mercantile law.

    Zsigmond Varga proves that there is a connection between the languages and cultures of the Ural Altaic peoples and that of the Sumerians.[10]  Pater Anton Deimel, after reading Zsigmond Varga's book, in his last writing before his death, states that only those scientists who speak agglutinative languages will be able to solve the Sumerian secrets.

     Dr. Elemér Novotny, a member of the Hungarian Academy of Science, has also proved that there are linguistic and cultural connections between the Sumerian and Hungarian peoples.[11] His research deals with the linguistic remains of the Sumerian and Hungarian languages, which show similarities. Two Hungarian writings which are earlier than the twelfth century, the "Halotti Beszéd" and the "Königsbergi Maria Ének" can be understood only with the help of the Sumerian language. Dr. Novotny corresponded with Professor Sz. P. Tolstov, the leader of the Chorezm expedition and with Professor I. M. Diakonov, Curator of the Eastern-Asian Institute in Saint Petersburg, both of whom accept the possibility of a Sumerian-Hungarian relationship.

     Dr. Novotny disputed the theory of most linguists that the Sumerian language is a dead language and had no relationship to any other language. He examined the language as if it were a living language that had progressed historically. He studied Hungarian texts of the eleventh and twelfth centuries that clearly show a relationship to the Sumerian language. He states that the names of many of the Sumerian gods appear in geographical names in Hungary. For example: IN-NA-NA the Sumerian Heavenly Mother, survives in a village name - Nana. The river Ister, an ancient name for the Danube, derives its name from ISTER, the Sumerian Fertility Goddess. The father of Árpád, Álmos has a Sumerian name, GAL-MA-GUS. Dr. Novotny explains that the letter "G" often disappeared from the beginning or end of a word. Therefore GAL-MA-GUS became AL-MA-US and later AL-MU-US. The meaning of the word GAL-MA-GUS was "children of the great God".

    Ida Bobula supports the theory that the Sumerian language is not a dead language and she follows the same method of studying the language as if it had progressed historically. She states that the letter "D" in Sumerian changes to a "T" in Hungarian.[12]  For example:


       Sumerian                                       Hungarian


       DAL (vessel)                                   TAL (plate)

       DAM (spouse                                  TAM (help, partner)

       DAR (splits open)                           TAR (opens)

       DAG (add, increase)                       TÁG (wide)

       DAN (to be bright)                          TAN (teach, enlighten)

                                                                TANÍT (teach)

                                                                TANÍTÓ (teacher)

                                                                TANÁCS (advice, counsel)

                                                                TANU (witness)

                                                                TANULÓ (pupil)

                                                                TANUL (learn)

                                                                TANULT (learned, educated)

                                                                TANULMÁNY (essay, study)

                                                                TANULATLAN (uneducated)


     Elemér Novotny writes that one of the most ancient portrayals of the god EN-LIL was the lion headed eagle. This statue was the defender of all the Sumerian cities and was not a god in itself but was the mythological symbol of the power of EN-LIL. It was the unified picture of the king of the animals and the king of the birds, the symbol of EN-LIL the god of earth and air. A relief, depicting this symbol of the lion-headed eagle with wide-spread wings, was found in the city of Ur and dated to the third millennium B.C. The cuneiform script often mentions this symbol.




 Ida Bobula suggests that this is a representation of the legendary TURUL bird of the Magyars and analyzes the word TURUL in Sumerian: TUR means "young or new"; ULLU means "shiny"; so TUR-ULLU means "new light". In Temesvár, Hungary (presently Timisoara in Rumania), a similar representation was found. Dr. Novotny says that there are two possible explanations for this. One is that this is the influence of the Sumerian culture in this territory and the second is that it is an independent product of a nation related to the Sumerians, which broke away from them and became isolated from them. I would like to suggest that there is a third explanation, that this might have been a symbol belonging to the ancient people who took it from the Carpathian Basin to Mesopotamia.

    The Sumerians had more than one name for the eagle but all the names are preceded by the word DINGIR meaning "god" and followed by HU meaning "bird" but this HU is not pronounced. e.g. DINGIR IM-DUG-UDHU - God storm cloud bird. DINGIR IM-GIG-HU= God dark cloud bird.

     The name IM-DUG-UD-HU is found in the Chronicles of Anonymus from A.D. 1200 where the river TUKUTA is mentioned and DUG-UD-A, which became Tukud, the original name of the village Tököd in Hungary. The Akkadians called the eagle AN-ZU which is also a name of Sumerian origin. AN in Sumerian means "sky" and ZU means "well-known". So AN-ZU means "the one who knows the sky well".

     The God EN-LIL had other names in Sumerian. He was called GAL-MAH which means "great exalted" and SU-MAH which means "merciful-exalted".

     Dr. Elemér Novotny described Sumerian customs which are important in the Sumerian-Hungarian connections. The High priestess EMES, who was usually the daughter of the king, carried the statue of the god EN-LIL every evening to the top of the Ziggurat to the sanctuary, where she lived. According to the religious beliefs of the Sumerians, the gods sometimes came down to earth to visit their earthly sanctuary where EMES, the high priestess lived. The visiting god, EN-LIL, in the form of an eagle, impregnated EMES who gave birth to a child who became the king. This is how the Sumerians explained the divine origin of their kings. It was necessary to mention this Sumerian custom so that we can make a comparison between it and the Hungarian legend of the Dream of Emese. Anonymus in his chronicle "Gesta Hungarorum" (circa A.D. 1200) which was based on earlier sources, relates the legend of the Dream of Emese:[13]

     "Anno dominice incarnationis DCCCXVIIII "Ugek" sicut supra diximus - longo post tempore de genere "Magog" regis - erat quidam nobilissimus dux Scitiae. Qui duxit sebe uxorem "in Dentumoger" filiam Eune du beli anni ducis - nomine "Emesu". De qua genuit filium, qui agnominatus est: "Almus". -Sed ab eventu divino est nominatus: Almus, quia matris eius - pregnanti per sompnium apparuit divina visio, in forma asturis que quasi veninens eam gravidavit."


The following is a free translation:


     "In the year of Our Lord 819, as was mentioned above, Ugek, who was a descendant of the people of King Magog, and was the most noble prince of the Scythians, in Dentumagyaria took in marriage Emese, the daughter of the Prince Eunedubeliani. A son was born to them whose name was Almus. He was named Almus after a divine event. His mother was impregnated by a divine vision which appeared to her in a dream in the form of an eagle".

     We can see a close connection between the account of Anonymus and the ancient Sumerian belief. This ancient Sumerian belief was still vividly alive among the Magyars in the year A.D. 819. There are several outstanding similarities:

      (a) The name Emese is identical to that of the Sumerian high-priestess EMES. That means that the mother of Álmos was a high-priestess among the Magyars.

      (b) The Magyar high-priestess Emese, just the Sumerian high-priestess EMES, was the daughter of a ruler. The father of Emese was Eunedubeliani whose name in Sumerian, according to Professor Badiny was ENE-DU-BI-ELI-AN-NI.[14]

     (c) The Sumerian national god EN-LIL or GAL-MAH in the form of an eagle, impregnated the high priestess, EMES. The TURUL bird impregnated the Magyar high priestess, Emese. Therefore the people and the priests had to accept her son, Álmos, as their legitimate ruler, of divine origin.

    (d) The divine origin of the ruler was most important among the Sumerians. According to their religious beliefs, the king always descended from Heaven. Therefore the divine origin of the king was expressed in his name. The Sumerian form of the name Álmos was GAL-MAH-US which means "the son of the most exalted". US means "son"; GAL-MAH means "most exalted" .[15]

    Dr. Novotny says that the formation of the name Álmos went through the following stages: GAL MAH-US, GAL-MU-US, HAL-MU-US, AL-MU-US, ALMUS, ALMOS. Álmos is a given name used in Hungary today. HAL-MUUS became Halmos, a commonly used Hungarian family name. We can see that the name of the first prince of Hungary, Álmos, was a Sumerian name. Some of his ancestors also had Sumerian names. Another explanation of the name of Álmos is that the Turul bird visited his mother in a dream (Magyar “álom”). Álmos then means "child of dream".

    (e) Ügek, (nobilissimus dux) the father of Álmos, descended from the Scythian clan of Magog. The Sumerian name was UG-EGE which means the leader or prince of the clan. (IGI, EGE, EKE, EK).

    (f) Magog in Sumerian was MAH-UG. MAH was also MAG meaning "exalted or sublime". UG or UKU means "son or descendant". Therefore MAGOG means "the son of the exalted".

    (g) Árpád was the son of Álmos. In Sumerian it was UR-PAD-E which, with the changes due to vowel harmony, became AR-PAD-E. UR or URU means "shepherd, pastor or priest-king". In the names of the Sumerian kings, UR, UTU, UTUL often appear with the meaning of "defender" or "pastor". PAD or PADA or PADE means "named" or "chosen". The name of the Sumerian king A-AN-NI-PAD-DA, who was the king of Ur around 2800 B.C., means "chosen lord or ruler". Dr. Novotny notes that, in the dialect of the region of Palóc in Hungary, Árpád is pronounced Orpod or Orpád, which is closer to the Sumerian UR-PAD or UR-PUD. In naming a king, the Sumerians placed great importance on including in his name his divine origin. The Finno-Ugric historians, however, propose that the name of Árpád comes from "árpa" meaning" a grain of barley". How could this name be given to the leader of a nation, whose father, Álmos, was of divine descent? They also state that the people of Árpád were nomadic people. If this were true, they would not have been farmers producing barley, and if they had this word in their vocabulary, it would not have been an important word, suitable for the name of a leader.

     There are also connections between the literature of the Magyars and that of the Sumerians. Dr. Etelka Toronyi points out that there are similarities between the epic poems of the Sumerians and those of the Hungarians.[16] Sándor Petőfi (1844), one of the greatest Hungarian poets wrote the epic János Vitéz, based on Hungarian folk tales and legends. This was 30 years before

the Epic of Gilgamesh was discovered. In world literature there has been no resemblance as remarkable as that between János Vitéz and the Epic of Gilgamesh. János Vitéz fought with monsters as did Gilgamesh. The goal both of János Vitéz and of Gilgamesh was to obtain immortality. János Vitéz, in the same way as the Sumerian TAMUZ (Gilgamesh), began his adventures as a shepherd king. Both left their homes and set out on their adventures, with the blessing of a loving woman. Jgnos Vitéz had the blessing of his beloved Iluska; Gilgamesh had the blessing of his mother. János Vitéz turned from the life of a shepherd to become a Hussar and, as a result of his bravery, became the most decorated Hussar. As a Hussar, he went to Tataria, Italy, Poland and India, finally coming to the aid of the French against the Turks. He gained the hand of the princess of France as a reward for his deeds, but rejected her for his beloved Iluska. Gigamesh rejected the love of the goddess Ishtar. The death of Iluska motivated János Vitéz to search for the secret of immortality. Gilgamesh was motivated to do the same after the death of his friend Enkidu. In both “János Vitéz” and “the Epic of Gilgamesh”, a thorned flower was to give to the youth his everlasting life. The one difference is that Gilgamesh brought up the flower from the depth of the sea and then lost it on the shore of a lake where he fell asleep whereas János Vitéz found the flower in the ashes of Iluska and threw it into the Lake of Life where it again became Iluska. When János Vitéz and Iluska left fairyland, they lost their immortality.

    In 1847, three years after Petőfi had written his epic poem, János Arany, another great Hungarian poet, wrote the trilogy of Toldi. This work was also based on Hungarian folk tales and legends and was not influenced by János Vitéz. It was also written while the Sumerian clay tablets lay beneath the desert sands. In the first part of Toldi, Arany describes the Hungarian Plain, and the enormous strength of Miklós Toldi:


"Rémlik, mintha látnám termétes nővését

Pusztitó csatakban szálfa öklelését

Ez volt ám az ember ha kellett a gáton

Nem terem ma párja heted hét országon.

Mint komor bikaé olyan a járása

Mint barna ejfél szeme pillantása."



     "I seem to see his well-developed body going into battle with a tree-trunk as a lance. This was the man who was needed to stop the flood which was about to break through the barrier. There is no-one like him in the whole wide world. He walks like a saturnine bull; his glance is like the darkness of midnight."

     The author of the Epic of Gilgamesh, written 5000 years before "Toldi", describes Gilgamesh as "a restless hero, unrivaled and undisciplined" who "has the craftsmen of Erech cast gigantic weapons for himself and Enkidu."[17]  Toldi left his home to look for glory. Gilgamesh also left his home to fight the enemy of his country, Humbaba (Huwawa). Gilgamesh said that if he died at the hand of Humbaba, he would be remembered for ever as a hero. Both Toldi and Gilgamesh left for their journey with a kiss and a blessing of their mothers.[18]  Toldi had an escort called Bence; the escort of Gilgamesh was Enkidu. Toldi met with a bull which had escaped from a slaughterhouse on the streets of Buda and he grasped it by the horns and subdued it. The most famous heroic deed of Gilgamesh was his struggle with the Heavenly Bull and his victory by holding it by the horns and immobilizing it. Toldi wrestled with a Bohemian, who was believed to be invincible, and was able to overcome him. Gilgamesh wrestled with Enkidu who had unbelievable strength. Both Toldi and Gilgamesh were invincible but both were finally overcome by their need to sleep. Toldi loved Piroska but gave her up to his friend. Gilgamesh rejected the love of Ishtar. Toldi came to the realization that man is mortal. When his friend Enkidu died, Gilgamesh was shocked by the mortality of man.

    It is worth mentioning a Hungarian choosing-game or counting-out rhyme in the discussion of Sumerian-Magyar connections: [19]


An tan témusz

Szoraka témusz

Szoraka tiki taka

Ala bala bambusz.


     László Pass, a linguist, deciphered this rhyme which has been repeated by children for millennia as an encouragement for the sun to rise in the morning. This rhyme has several forms. A second one is:


Anta dunguz

Szúr raga dunguz

Szúr raga digi daga

Ala bala banduz.


      László Pass analyzes the first word "Anta" as the Sumerian word ANTA meaning "above".[20] The second part of the word - TA - is a derivative of the Sumerian DUG, DU meaning "act" or "do". (Deimel, 79) This compound word means "rise" or "get up". The second word "témusz" or "dunguz" is the word which has changed the most. We should consider historical linguistics and recognize that "d" changes to "t". The vowels were all originally "u"; "témusz" was originally DUMUZ which is just a variation of the word DUNGUZ. The sound NG was originally pronounced as "m". The word was the name of a god in Phoenicia and Babylon, TAMUZ. (TAMUZ was also the Sumerian name for Gilgamesh) This name can be found in the Sumerian name DUMUZI ABSU. The meaning of DUMU is "boy", "ZI" means "faithful" and ABSU means "ocean". ABSU or ZU-AB means "water-house" or "water-inn". (Hommel: 1-6) According to the Sumerian legends, the ocean was the night-time residence of the Sun-god. László Pass says that the name DUMUZI ABSU means "the watery home of the god DUMUZ." The name DUMUZ can also be found in the Hungarian legends. Prince Csaba (the youngest son of Atilla) made the Hun/Magyar leaders swear allegiance to the god Damaszek so that they could go and reconquer the country of Atilla in the Carpathian Basin. The name DUNGUZ appears as the name of one of the sons of Atilla in a slightly different form - Dengizing. One of the Pecheneg princes was called Tonuzoba.

     The word "szúr" in the second line, is SUR in Sumerian and means "squeeze" or "give birth" (Precizion, 266-154). The next word "aga" is RA in Sumerian and means "clear, shiny or brilliant" (Deimel: 189) In this case it means the brightness of the sunrise. In the old Magyar language, it was "reg" which in the old Paloc dialect became "regvel" later becoming "reggel" which now means "morning". The second part of the word was "ga" which means "house, home".

    The word "digi" in Sumerian DIG means "overflow" or "flood" (Deimel: 83) In this case it means "flood" of light. The next word "daga", in Sumerian DAG means "spread, expand" (Hommel: 17-20). In this case it means "spread or swell".

    "AI" ALAG, in the fourth line means "to cut or chop".[21]  It means here "to cut". "bale", Sumerian BAL means "take away or remove" (Deimel: 25). "Bambusz" is present in the vocabulary of the Szekels, today and was in their vocabulary before they became Christian. "Bambusz" was the name of the spirit of darkness and was used to scare or threaten children when they misbehaved. The original Sumerian name might have been BAR-BUZ. BAR in Sumerian meant "sun, light". BUZ meant "destruction, deserted". The word BUZ appears in the Hungarian word for a club type of weapon "buzogány". The meaning of the complete rhyme is: "Wake up, DUNGUZ, give birth to the morning, flood the light and cut and chase BAMBUS."

     This little rhyme was used at the holiday of the winter solstice which the ancient people celebrated from December 21 for nine days, celebrating the victory of light over darkness or goodness over evil. To erase this ancient holiday, in A.D. 353, the Christian Church in the Vatican ordered that the birth of Jesus should be celebrated right in the middle of this holiday, on December 25. This is why the Hungarian word for Christmas, "Karácsony", is not of Slav or German origin as is often believed, but is an ancient Magyar or Sumerian word GURU-SUN which means "turn from the darkness".

     This little counting-verse can also be found among the Finnish people but it is much more unrecognizable:



En ten dem

So raka tem

So raka tike taka

Ela bela boms


    Pakkela, the author of the Finnish short story, "The boyish girl" mentions that this rhyme has been well-known to the Finnish children for a long time.

    Dr. András Zakar, who was the secretary to Cardinal József Mindszenty and author of many historical researches, remarked that ancient remains can be found in the literature of the Magyar and the Finn peoples but that their mutual roots are found in the southern territory of Sumer and not in the Siberian tundra. The Magyar-Sumerian connection was stronger than that of the Finns and the Sumerians.

     Zoltán Kodaly and Francis G. Galpin influenced Professor Badiny to compare the Sumerian and Hungarian music.[22] To do this, Professor Badiny says that we should follow Galpin's methods. Galpin compared the notes of the Sumerian musical instruments with the Babylonian, Assyrian and Hebrew liturgical music. Because this is an acceptable method, the comparison of the Sumerian-Magyar musical connections can be studied in this way. These are the steps to follow:

1. Become acquainted with the Sumerian instruments.

2. Compare the Sumerian and Hungarian musical instruments.

3. Recognize the Sumerian scale and catalogue of staffs and compare this with the Hungarian.

4. Continue with the methods of Galpin and add to his researches using information to which he did not have access because the first publication of Sumerian music was published in 1977 by University of Berkeley, California.

     Galpin categorized the Sumerian instruments into three groups, (i) drums and percussion instruments, (ii) wind instruments and (iii) string instruments.

     (i) Percussion instruments. The first surprise is that the Hungarians call the drum "dob" just as the Sumerians did. Three cuneiform signs exist signifying "drum" but the Sumerologists who do not speak Hungarian pronounce these as "dub" not "dob". The cuneiform sign for "drum" can be recognized on the Sumerian seals placed before the name of a god or a priest-king, but then it must be read BALAD-DI which means "law-drum". The Sumerian custom of announcing a new law was to play a drum-roll to call the people together before the announcement of the new law. In Hungary, but not in the rest of Europe, this custom exists today. Galpin mentions a Sumerian musical instrument which he calls "sistrum" for which he cannot find a Sumerian name. This "sistrum" is identical to the Hungarian instrument, the jinglers (csörgő).

     (ii) Wind instruments. The Sumerians had two kinds of pipe, just as the Hungarians do, the short shepherd's pipe and the long shepherd's pipe. According to Galpin, the Sumerian name for the short pipe was TI-GI and it had three finger holes on top. On a fourth hole they were able to play melodies in a diatonic scale. We do not know for sure the name of the long pipe. In the cuneiform texts, in which musical instruments are mentioned, it is called GI-BU which means "reed" which is blown or GI-GID which means "long reed". Badiny believes the Sumerian name is BU-RU-LA which is "Furulya" in Hungarian. Whistles made from reeds or weeping willow are called SIP in Sumerian and also in Hungarian. Archeologists have found Sumerian music for the whistle which was dedicated to the god EN-LIL. The text of this music was: "the shepherds sat down and played to EN-LIL a soothing melody on their reed whistles." In this text, according to Professor Badiny, the Sumerian word IR meant the same thing as the ancient Magyar "ir", that is, "soothing". Galpin mentions whistles from all over the world, but omitted to mention the Hungarian whistles, yet the Hungarian museums are full of the same kind of double-whistles which were found in Mesopotamia, made of wood or copper. Innana left instructions that, on the feast of Dumuzi, the Sumerians should play pipes ornamented with lapiz lazuli and pearls. Ornamented whistles and whistles made of silver can be found in Hungary. Galpin mentions one more wind instrument which he names KITMU. This word can be found only in the Labat lexicon, in the Akkadian word list. It is an Akkadian word which meant in Sumerian "black opener". In Sumerian this was TAR-AG. These whistles in the Hungarian museums are called the "Török" pipes but in the time of the Kuruc, in the early eighteenth century, they were called "tárogató".

     Most of the horns or trumpets which were made in Sumer and in Hungary were made from the horns of the cattle. The horns were originally used for calling purposes. In the cuneiform writings of the time of Gudea, the horn is written SI-MU. According to Professor Badiny, the present Hungarian word for horn - "Szarv" is derived from the ancient Magyar word SI. Many Hungarian words are derived from this ancient word, such as "szigony" (anchor), "szivarvány" (rainbow) (a pair of horns in the sky).

      (iii) The string instruments. The Sumerians used two kinds of harps, the horizontal and the vertical. The vertical harp was plucked with the fingers. This action was expressed by the Sumerian word PAN-TAG-GA or PAN-GATAG which is almost identical to the Hungarian word for the same action "pengetek". The Sumerian seals show horizontal harps or dulcimers which are played with a small hammer-type instrument, as is the Hungarian cimbalom. The vertical harp itself is not found among the ancient Hungarian musical instruments, maybe because of its large dimensions which would make it cumbersome to carry during the migrations. The zither was a horizontal instrument resembling the harp and is commonly used in Hungarian

folk music. The Sumerians also had instruments identical to the Hungarian lute, lyre or "koboz". The Sumerian name for the lyre was PAN-TUR which means smaller strap or ribbon in Hungarian "pant" or "pantlika".

    Almost all of the Sumerian instruments can be found among the Hungarian musical instruments. All the drums and all types of whistles. They had the simple whistle, the double whistle, and compound pipes of five and seven whistles, all made from reeds. The length of the pipes determined the pitch of the sound. The measurements and shape of the shepherd's pipes are identical in Sumer and Hungary. The shape and purpose of the horns is also identical. The string instruments are all identical except for the fact that the vertical harp is missing among the Hungarians. Galpin could not identify one of the Sumerian instruments but described it and its description fits the Hungarian hurdy-gurdy. In northern Hungary and in Transdanubia, the bagpipe can be played with the diatonic scale. This instrument must have been a very popular instrument in Hungary because its name - "duda" - appears in a family name - Dudas - all across Hungary. The name "Dudas" means bagpipe player. The Sumerian sign, L. 574, is pronounced DUDU and means an instrument like the bagpipe. The German name for bagpipe is "Dudelsack" which may come from the Hungarian word "dudal" which means "to play the bagpipe" and "dudol" which means "to hum". Rattles and jinglers were popular among the Sumerians and the Magyars.

    The possession of identical instruments shows the probability of a similar musical development. Béla Bartok traveled to Anatolia and Mesopotamia in 1936, probably to research this similarity, and he recorded on a phonograph 90 folk songs. In 1937, he published his remarks about these folksongs in the issues No. 2, 4 and 5 of a publication called "Nyugat", under the title "Népdal gyűjtés Törökországban". He says:

     "The master of the house, without much persuasion started to sing a song... I could hardly believe my ears, because the melody was just like an ancient Magyar refrain." He continues: "The fact that it is possible to identify such a relationship raises this subject to international importance. There is nowhere in the world, at least to my knowledge, another case where the history of folk music goes back so many centuries and where such an indisputable relationship can be established."

     Bartok also stated that the musical origins of the Turks and the Magyars go back to the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. but at that time the ancestors of the Anatolian Turks lived on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and the ancestors of the Magyars lived in the territories of the Caspian and Black Seas. Bartok concluded that the folk music of both the Turks and the Magyars must have come from a mutual ancestor and dates back a minimum of 1500 years.[23]

     According to Bartok and Kodaly, the ancient origins of the Hungarian music are found in the East. Not only are the Hungarian pentatonic melodies identical to those of the East but, in both territories, the pentatonic scale was based on a scale with three intervals and had a repetitive format. Kodaly said that this scale could have been an independent development among peoples who could not have had a connection with each other such as the Africans, the North American Indians, the Celts and the Chinese, but the obvious identical character of the structure of the melody, the phraseology, and the rhythm of the Hungarian music to that of Western and Central Asia indicates that it originated in that territory. He also says that if we find such an identity between the music of the Magyars and the people remaining in these territories, we cannot conclude otherwise than that, at the time that the Magyars broke away from these peoples, this musical heritage was already established and the Magyars brought this ancient musical heritage with them, when they migrated to the west. Today the Hungarian musical culture is the farthest reaching branch of the Asian musical culture which spread from Central Asia to the Black Sea and beyond. Kodaly studied the ancient Hungarian musical origins for almost three decades and he came to the conclusion: "The Magyars brought their musical culture together with their language, from their ancient home."[24]

    Dr. Badiny writes that the Hungarian instrumental folk music and folk songs are a direct continuation of the MAH-GAR or Sumerian melodies. the origin of the Hungarian word "nóta" meaning "song, melody" is Sumerian. The analysis of this word emphasizes how well the Sumerian melodies and the Hungarian songs correspond in their psychological effects. Foreigners say that the Magyars take their pleasure sadly. The Sumerian word for "song" was NO-TA which resisted any linguistic change and can be traced back 5000 years. Both syllables have independent meanings which combined give the new meaning of the word NO-TA. NO or NA which was pronounced "NO" means "sorrow" and also "stone" both of which are heavy. In the ancient Magyar language too, the meaning of "sorrow" and "stone" was expressed by "no". The second syllable, TA, was a suffix indicating departure. Even today the Hungarian mother says to her child "We are going Tata" when they are going somewhere. The ancient meaning of the ancient word NO-TA was "leaving sorrow behind". In their music, Hungarians leave their sorrow behind while they take their pleasure sadly. Many of the Hungarian melodies are sad but at the same time they act as a catharsis in the same way that the "blues" acted for the African slaves in America. We have to acknowledge the antiquity of the Magyar language and its richness for, even at the time of the Sumerians, the healing power of music was accurately expressed in the word NO-TA. Anne Drafkorn Kilmer and her associates at the University of California at Berkeley published 'Sounds from Silence" in 1976. They deciphered some cuneiform signs which denoted musical notations. They believed that this was a Hurrite melody from 1400 B.C. but they noted that this same melody was known in the cities of Ur and Nippur 2000 years earlier. Professor Badiny sent this melody to Dr. Domonkos, the musical director of an orchestra in Los Angeles who, with his associates, made a comparison between the Sumerian/Hurrite melody and a Hungarian melody which begins: "Szivárványhavasan...", finding them to be identical. This same melody, written in a tritonic scale was found among the ancient folk songs collected by Bartok and Kodaly. There was not just a resemblance between the melodies but they were found to be identical.

    Both Bartok and Kodaly state that the origins of the music of the Magyars are to be found in Asia. Professor Badiny proves the Sumerian connection. I would venture to say that the tritonic and pentatonic scales were played by the ancient populace in the Carpathian Basin and, just as the language, motifs and customs did, traveled east to Asia and southeast to Mesopotamia with the migrating Danubian peoples and returned at a later date with the Sumerians, Huns, Avars and Magyars.

    Men became civilized when they turned their energies to concentrate on the quality of living rather than on mere existence. Culture is the intellectual development applied to every aspect of life, metallurgy, art, ceramics, music, architecture, religion, mining, and laws.

     In human development the greatest leap forward was the development of agriculture because thenceforth man was not at the mercy of unpredictable conditions. Another important development was the discovery of metallurgy in ancient times. The development of durable metal tools allowed men to work the land more efficiently and more easily.

     John Dayton states: "Bognar-Kutzian (1972) placed the earliest copper age of Europe in the Tisza Basin... This area, located inside the great bend of the Carpathians, has rich native copper in the south, and the copper of the Hungarian Erzgebirge and the Mátra Mountains to the north. Hammer axes are found all over this area, and ingots from the Bodrogkeresztur culture in Hungary show that a trade in metals existed. "He states that these cultures date to the first half of the third millennium, a thousand years earlier than Gordon Childe suggested.[25]    

     There is yet another important observation. It is that the widespread findings of the copper age axe-adzes in the Carpathian Basin and the clay models of axes and adzes in Mesopotamia led John Dayton to ask the following question about the Sumerians: "How did these people know of the copper/bronze originals?"[26]  He credits Gordon Childe with identifying the source of the Near East copper and bronze as somewhere along the Danube Valley.[27] Childe "had thought that Sumerian prospectors had been responsible for the exploitation of these ores in 'barbaric' Europe at this time. It would appear, however, that copper melting and casting were in existence in Europe by the first half of the Third Millennium and spread from there to the Near East."[28]

     Certain Sumerian tablets have been kept at the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. (N.I 1117, 2337, 2473, 2742) Professor Samuel Noah Kramer of the University of Pennsylvania mentions the decipherment of these tablets in his book: Sumerian Mythology, (1963), in the chapter on the creation of the pickaxe. In this chapter he calls the axe-adze "the pickaxe". In Sumerian times the pickaxe was revered and played a very important religious role. Professor Kramer states that all the writings on the tablets are very easily deciphered except for a few sections which cannot be understood.[29]  Professor Badiny says that no doubt we cannot yet understand everthing from that age. But all the Sumerian literary texts added together will help us to understand. Professor Kramer was writing in 1963. Since then, a number of emigrant Hungarian Sumerologists, have been working on the decipherment of these tablets and they have successfully deciphered those parts which Professor Kramer stated could not be understood. Their decipherments reveal amazing information about the Sumerian religious world. Instead of "the Creation of the Pickaxe" they gave the title: "The Covenant".[30]  The following is the decipherment:

    1. EN-LIL, according to his unchangeable desire, separated Heaven from Earth and the Earth departed far from Heaven.

     2. EN-LIL dug out the seed from the inside of the earth so that wheat could be grown from it according to the law.

     3. EN-LIL appointed the pickaxe to be the symbol of the alliance between Heaven and Earth and ordered that work was the duty of the pickaxe and the reed basket.

     4. EN-LIL exalted the pickaxe made of gold and its container made of silver. The head of the axe was of lapiz-lazuli and was as strong as the heavenly bull which was able to move floodgates.

     5. After EN-LIL had created the pickaxe in this way, and had decreed its fate, He took the holy crown from his head and set it on the head of EM-BAR, whom he had sent down to earth before that. He now looked down on them with favor.

     6. The inhabitants of Heaven surrounded them and placed the holy pickaxe in front of them.

     7. The inhabitants of Heaven, uttered prayers to EN-LIL and then, with a heavenly chorus, gave EN-LIL’s holy pickaxe to the earthly EM-BAR so that he might use it as needed. (In Hungarian today, "man" is "ember".)

     8. The heavenly chorus sang in this way: "Take EN-LIL’s holy pickaxe as an everlasting covenant. We declare a covenant between us and you and those who come after you.

     9. IZ-TEN, through EN-LIL, gave the Earth and the Tree of Knowledge to you and your descendants for ever more. Settle and multiply on the rich territories of the four rivers. (IZ-TEN in Hungarian is "Isten" and means "God".)

     10. The Holy Pickaxe is the symbol of the Covenant between us and you, who on the earthly place with the result of work, will build IZ-TEN's earthly empire. The Covenant of the Holy Pickaxe will allow you to rule the world.

    11. Therefore we order all of your descendants to live and work with the power of the Covenant Pickaxe. Keep the pickaxe in your hand and use it well for the glory of EN-LIL."

    12. When EN-LIL saw his golden Pickaxe in the hands of EM-BAR who settled on the earth, he shot a bolt of lightning at the Pickaxe and his voice sounded like thunder on the earth: "I made a Covenant with you EM-BAR of Kos. With the power of the Pickaxe. you will be the Master of the World as long as you serve with loyalty and keep my Covenant."

    13. The inhabitants of Heaven helped the Kassites on the earth, according to the Covenant. Abundance and happiness was on the Earth under the strength of the Pickaxe.

    14. The Pickaxe built cities and the house of the Pickaxe became the sanctuary of the truth but the house which rebels against the Covenant, the home of disobedience, is the destroyer of the Pickaxe.

    15. The Pickaxe cuts off the head of Evil, throws down its crown and cuts out its roots, but the Tree of Life which grows the Flower of Goodness is its helper and defender.

    16. The father of EN-LIL decreed the duty of the Pickaxe and, under the power of the Covenant between Heaven and Earth, ordered that the Pickaxe be glorified for all eternity.

     17. The inhabitants of Heaven kept their Covenant well because as the light of the soul leaves the body of the earthly EM-BAR, he has power to form and rule the earth and he continues the work of creation, according to the will of IZ-TEN. In the same way, among the inhabitants of Heaven, EN-KI was the one who created with the power of EN-LIL, every other material and body on the earth.

     18. EN-KI, according to the Covenant, blessed the country of the Tree of Knowledge with trees, plants, birds, and animals and caused them to multiply all over the earth and he hid gold, silver, copper and all kinds of metals inside the earth. IS-KUR, one of the inhabitants of Heaven, became the caretaker of all these because it was he who brought gold and silver to Earth from Heaven.

     19. After this, EN-KI filled the four rivers with an abundance of fish. The heavenly caretaker of the waters was EN-BI-LU-LU.

     20. The sons of EM-BAR, with the power of the Tree of Knowledge, created the plough and the yoke. They formed them with the pickaxe. They planted the seeds which they received from EN-LIL and the Earth became rich in harvests of grain. The grain beautified the fields of the earth. The Pickaxe built irrigating canals and EN-KI appointed EN-KIM-DU, one of the inhabitants of Heaven, as caretaker of the canals.

     21. Abundance and happiness filled the Earth. The people started to build houses and KABTA, an inhabitant of Heaven, taught the descendants of KUS to make bricks and the frame for the bricks. (In Hungarian, even now, the frame is called "kapta".)

    22. The animals multiplied. They built stables for them. They milked them. EN-KI wanted DUMUZI, the loyal shepherd of Heaven, to teach the people of EN-LIL to care for the animals and to use their milk. This is the way the inhabitants of Heaven kept the Covenant with the people of the Holy Pickaxe, the people of EN-LIL, who were the descendants of KUS.

    It has already been mentioned that Professor Samuel Noah Kramer observed the linguistic connections between the Sumerians and the Ural Altaic peoples.[31]

    Árpád's Magyars brought with them the ancient religious view of the Magus religion. They not only wrote with the runic script on rods which could easily be destroyed but they also painted, on the walls of the churches, paintings representing the ancient symbols of the Magus religion. In the chapel of the castle of Esztergom one such symbol is to be found, on a lion painted on the wall. This symbol is the four triangles on the side of the lion. This is the only lion remaining on this wall. According to Professor Badiny, there were originally fourteen of them but they have been erased.[32]




Replica of the Lion of Esztergom


    The ancient Sumerian Magus religious beliefs were not accepted by the followers of the new religion, Christianity. Therefore the Christians simply painted over the lions in order to erase them. This action fortunately preserved them for a long time but now only one remains until the present. In time, the upper layer of paint peeled off and the original picture of the lion reappeared. This became one of the strongest proofs of the ancient connections of the Hungarians. The word for lion in Sumerian was UR-MAH or MAH-UR. MAH meant "great, powerful and knowledgeable". In astrology, the Lion constellation was the house of the sun, which beamed its blessings on every living creature. It is interesting to note that a few Carpathian Mountains have the name "Magura" which is similar to MAH-UR.

    The ancient autochthonous people in the Carpathian Basin and the Árpád Magyars had religious views which were similar to those of the Sumerian Magus religion. The Sumerian form of government was a theocracy. To the Sumerians, their priest-king was the representative of God. They believed that he was descended from God and they called him PA-TE-SI. The similarity between the Turanian and Sumerian religious views was first recognized by François Lenormand and later by Von Orelli who writes: "The ancient Sumerian religion appears to be similar to that of the Turanian peoples. They believed in spirits and Magi."[33]  Professor Badiny mentions many other researchers who are of the same opinion: Armin Vambéry, Holger Pedersen, Fritz Hommel and Thureau-Dangin.[34]  These similarities are a strong proof of the Sumerian-Hungarian connection. Among the Turanian peoples, as among the Sumerians, the Mother Goddess was known as the Queen of Heaven. Like the Sumerians, the Turanian peoples believed that their leaders and their people were of divine origin. The Magyars had a similar belief. Antal Endrey writes about the Magyar legend of Hunor and Magor, who were believed to be of divine origin as the sons of Nimrud.[35]

    Because they were of divine origin, the Huns and the Magyars took on the name KI-EN-GIR which means "the children of God". In the same way, BE-EL-GAR (Bulgar) means "the children of Baal". The divine origin of the HUN-GAR people can also be found in the cuneiform tablets. It is written that the HUN-GAR were the first people on the earth. The Sumerians believed that man appeared on earth when the constellation of Aries was in ascendance. Astrologists still name Aries as the first constellation of the Zodiac. The Sumerian name for Aries was MUL-LU-HUN-GA, the meaning of which was Hun men's house in the stars. Here originated the belief that the Hun descendants were all the descendants of the Ram (Aries) (Hungarian KOS , pronounced "kosh"). In mythology and in the Bible, the constellation of Aries was called KUSH. According to the Semites, KUSH was the father of NIMROD. The Kush or Cush nation (Kassites) originates from the constellation of KUSH as the descendants of DU-MU-ZI. René Labat says that, up to the time of Hammurabi, the name of the constellation of the Ram was written KUS (L. 318) (pronounced Kush). In the First Babylonian dynasty, in the time of Hammurabi, the syllables were changed. What was written KUS became FU, and NAP became UTU or BABBAR. The last Sumerian king, LUGALZAGGISI, declared himself to be the descendant of KUS.[36]  Around 2400 B.C., the Sumerian people believed that they were the descendants of KUS.

     Among the Magyars, the belief in divine origin can be found in the legend of the Dream of Emese. The cult of the Mother Goddess can be found among the Magyars and among the Sumerians.  Both peoples honored the Mother Goddess as the symbol of motherhood. It was under the Semitic influence that the Mother Goddess lost her title of Queen of Heaven and received the title of Goddess of Love with the name of ISTAR (Ishtar). Their attributes were not the same. ISTAR stated about herself "I am the great prostitute". This statement ruined the public morals. While the Hungarian mother lived by the laws of the Queen of Heaven, INNANA, or Boldogasszsony, there was no fear that the Hungarian nation would die out because of a lack of population.

    In the old cosmological religious view, the power of God was manifested in everything on earth and in the sky. Thus, in the city of Ur, the Sumerians worshipped God whose power was manifested in the Moon. In Sippar and Nippur, the Sun was the manifestation of God. The Christians mistakenly believed that the ancient people worshipped the Sun and the Moon and that they were idol worshippers. No matter which manifestation they revered, the Mother Goddess was the unifying force of their religion. Among the Turanian peoples, the Mother Goddess had the title of the Queen of Heaven and she was represented by the planet Venus. (The Romans worshipped Venus as the Goddess of Love.) The light rays from Venus which reached the earth were the godly blessing on earth. The earthly representations of Venus were the many beautifully formed statues of women found among the Turanian peoples. Those who revered the Sun, placed a lion at her feet. Those who revered the Moon placed a bull at her feet or just the horn of a bull. In Carthage, she is found with the bull's horn. In the Parthian Empire, her name was ANAHIT and a lion was at her feet. This representation is also found among the Sumerians and Magyars.

    It is interesting to note that the Puns, whose capital was Carthage, were also supposed to be of unknown origins, as were many Turanian peoples. The names Hun and Pun sound very similar. The religious view of the Puns indicates Turanian connections. Maybe this is why the Romans had to destroy them as they later tried to destroy the Huns.

      Among the ancient peoples, obtaining food and building families were the two most important life functions. The religious view emphasized their importance. The most effective time period for supplying food and the continuation of life was when the center of strength was most effective. The best time for planting was when the planet Venus, or DIL-BAD, came into line with the star BETA VIRGINIS and the star SPICA. This season was symbolized by the date-palm and the ear of grain. These were represented on the rosetta on the flank of the lion at the foot of the Mother Goddess and on the lion of Esztergom. These two plants gave the people the two major sources of food in Mesopotamia. This is why the Sumerians represented the Alpha Virginis star (Spica) and the Beta Virginis, by the ear of grain and the date palm. Both stars were included in the constellation of Virgo. When Venus enters the constellation of Virgo, the constellation becomes the Leo Constellation and in this time period the planet Venus receives the name of Leo and there are two lions in the Heavens. This is why, in the statue of INNANA, the rosetta is between the two lions at her Feet.

     As we learned in "The Covenant" the God, EN-LIL created Heaven and Earth and appointed the God, ENKI, to be the creator of every good thing on earth. The Sumerians held ENKI in high regard and addressed him to intervene for them with the all-powerful EN-LIL. When the Semites overran Sumer, they adopted the Sumerian religion and gave the attributes of the Sumerian gods to the Semitic gods. Thus the Semitic God, EA, received all the honors previously enjoyed by ENKI. This is why, on the clay tablets, they marked the high rank of EA with four cuneiform signs in the same way as it can be seen on the lion at Esztergom. These four cuneiform signs on the side of the lion indicate the rank of the god EA and his earthly representation, the king.

    The number 40 is a magical number in the royal power. The highest advisory board of the Árpád Magyars, which was named Ukkin-Puhru, was made up of 40 members and the Avar Kagan was buried with 40 arrows.[37]

    Because the Semitic conquest took place in Mesopotamia and the semiticized religious remains can be found in Esztergom, this means that the Árpád Magyars must have had some connections with the religious customs of Mesopotamia. The lions in Esztergom were painted by the Magyars. The Sabirs (Subareans), who came from Mesopotamia, joined the Magyars and became known as the Megyer nation. Perhaps this is the biggest proof that the Magyars were connected to the Sumerians who, according to some linguists, called themselves MAH-GAR or in today's language Magyar. Another Sumerian/Magyar connection which I have mentioned before are the many "Sumerian" geographical names which were found in the Carpathian Basin. They bear witness to a Sumerian/Magyar ancient populace because these geographical names go back to 3000 B.C.

     Among the most important Sumerian religious holidays were those which honored the fertility goddess, which even now can be found among the Roman Catholic holidays of the Hungarians. Lajos Kálmány, a Catholic priest, in the middle of the last century, gathered a number of ancient religious customs found among the Hungarian people, which were not included in the Catholic liturgy, but rather were the remains of the ancient religion which honored the Mother-Goddess. They honored the Great Mother Goddess and seven other Goddesses - the Goddess of Birth, the Goddess of Sorrow, the Goddess of the Harvest, the Goddess of the Candle Blessing, the Goddess of Help, the Goddess of the Month and the youngest, the Virgin Mother, who became the Virgin Mary in the Christian religion. The ancient religion prohibited all physical work on Tuesday because that was the day which honored the Mother-Goddess yet it was a good omen to start an important task on that day. For example the incubation of eggs. Women who could not conceive had to fast for nine consecutive Tuesdays to elicit the aid of the Mother-Goddess. From these holidays we can see that the great Mother-Goddess was the giver and protector of life, the giver of plenty and the protector of regeneration of man and animals.[38]

     József Huszka found among the Magyar folk motifs a theme of decoration around the picture of Astarte, a later name for the Mother-Goddess.[39] Most recently, in the folk motifs, Gábor Papp has found evidence of Sun-worship.[40]

    Ida Bobula says that almost every ancient religion has a concept of Magna Mater but the Hungarian "Boldogasszony" or Mother-Goddess (ancient pronunciation: Badugasan) was in Sumerian BAU-DUG ASAN. In Sumerian, the meaning of BAU was "food-giver", DUG was "benign, benevolent" and ASAN meant "goddess". The similarity between the Hungarian and Sumerian Mother-Goddess is very obvious and cannot be accidental. We know BAU from the cuneiform signs and pictures on the clay tablets. Most often she is represented as a lady with a crown and a ruffled skirt, sitting on a throne with a tree of life in front of her or a life branch which carries fruit in her hand, or a goblet which signifies her identity. There is often a dog and a bird in the picture. On the crest of the city of Lagash can be seen a Sun-bird (or Turul) with open wings. This is an obvious connection with the Árpád crest and the legend of the Hungarian origins.[41]

    Here I show a Babylonian seal of a lion on which the four cuneiform signs are clearly visible.[42]

Picture courtesy of Dr. Badiny


     These signs indicate the rank of EA. Now if we study them closely, we will see that these signs create a picture of three hills, an ancient pictograph already existing before the discovery of writing. From here it was adopted into the cuneiform sign with the meaning of MAD or KUR. MAD means "country" and KUR often means "mountain" or "mountainous country". The origin of this symbol is very ancient. It is possible that it originated among the autochthonous people of the Carpathian Basin. Many historians suggest that the three hillocks represent the three mountains in the Carpathian mountain chain, the Tátra, Mátra and Fátra. The symbol of the three hillocks can be found on the shield of Árpád. Is it possible that the migrating Danubian people took this symbol with them to Mesopotamia and it became a symbol of the Árpád Magyars to remind them of the three mountains of their homeland? Recently the Slovaks have adopted the symbol from the Hungarian shield because the three mountains were given to them by the treaty of Trianon.

    Just as these three hillocks are a proof of the Sumerian-Hungarian connections, so is the Hungarian word "kapu" which means "gate". The word "Kapu" is important because it is made up of two syllables. The first syllable "ka" is KA in Sumerian and means "gate". The second syllable "pu" is PU in Akkadian and also means "gate". Therefore this word originated from the time when the two peoples, the Sumerians and the Akkadians, intermarried and the Magyars probably adopted it from the Subareans.

    Another meaning of these four cuneiform signs on the side of the lion is "the lord of the four directions, north south east and west." This title was used by the Sumerian rulers. Another symbol of the lord of the four directions is the cross with four equal arms which was used by the Magyars of the early Árpád era on their coins, indicating again their connections with Mesopotamia.

     Looking again at the picture of the lion of Esztergom, we will see that there appears to be a whip extending from the mane of the lion to the end of its tail. If we count the dots marked on the whip, we find exactly fifty. These fifty dots represent fifty months or the exact time it takes for the planet Venus to complete its path in the heavens, bringing blessings and abundance to the earth. In the fiftieth month everything comes to bloom in abundance. The cuneiform sign No. 9.428 from the Vatican collection states that "the whip of ERU is lashing above the tail of UR-GULA".[43]

     P. Grossman states that the first star of the tail of the Lion, which today we call Denebola, was the Star of the Whip.[44]  In the beliefs of the eastern peoples, this star was the Star of Misfortune and Death. Because the lion is the symbol of the power which came from Heaven, the punishment of Heaven is included just as the whip of God strikes the ruler who does not do his duty.[45] The tradition of the Whip of God was so deeply rooted in the religious beliefs that it can be found everywhere among the Turanian peoples. Even those peoples who did not know the lion, developed motifs which included the whip of God as the tail of their totem animal. If this custom was so widespread in the Scythian Hun world, then why do the present-day historians declare that Atilla's statement that he was the Whip of God (Scourge of God) is absurd? In the Scythian-Hun world there was no slavery. Even prisoners of war, with valiant deeds, were able to raise themselves to the highest ranks. When Atilla learned the social structures of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, and the fact that they both had millions of slaves, it was no wonder that he declared himself to he the Scourge of God and started out to try to free those slaves.

     Another basic belief of the ancient Magyar religion was that the center of the world or the center of the heavens was in the place where the golden apple was found. We must know that there were many fairy tales about the tree which reaches to heaven, on the highest level of which everything that grows is gold. This is the empire of the Sun, where the creator of every goodness, the Sun-God is living. From here originates the orb of state in Royal Kingdoms. That belief also existed in the Sumerian world, in the third Ur dynasty in the 21st century B.C. The Sumerians believed that the Center of Heaven is the North Star.

    Even after a thousand years of Christianity, there are still some traces of the religion of the Sun God among the peasants in Hungary. The Hungarian people accepted those parts of Christianity which they were able to identify with the ancient religion. The dual deity of the Sun and the Moon can be found in the Hungarian fine arts and in poetry. (For example in the works of the poets, Endre Ady, Atilla József, László Nagy and also in the paintings of Csontváry, one of the most famous zodiacal painters.)

    At the time of the Árpád homecoming, the custom of having two kings was widespread. There was a king and sub-king or viceroy. The King was of divine origin and was sacred and believed to be the son of the Sun. Here we will see the origin of the Magyar title Kende (king), according to Professor Badiny. EN-KI was the God of the Sumerians who settled every goodness on the earth. This name can be pronounced EN-KI or KI-EN. According to the Sumerian/Magyar grammar, it makes no difference. It meant the lord of Knowledge or the knowledge lord.

     The first syllable of the Magyar word "kende", KEN is derived from the Sumerian word KI-EN; the DE is the Sumerian DU which means "to originate" or "to come" (Labat No. 206). The meaning of KI-EN-DU or "kende" is "originating from KI-EN or EN-KI" in other words "of divine origin". This was the title of the King in the dual monarchy. The title of the sub-king or viceroy was "gyula" which is derived from the Sumerian word UR-GULA which is the same as the Sumerian name for the constellation of Leo. (Later, the word "gyula" was replaced by the word "nádor".) The sun reaches its strongest power in the constellation of Leo so, in the earthly rule, the Kende reaches his peak of power when unified with the Gyula. This is clearly a good example of theocratic rule. The Kende and his queen were destined to bring the power of the Sun-God into their Kingdom. At the same time the Gyula and his queen were destined to bring the power of the Moon-God to the earth. This was the conclusion of Sandor Bosnyak.[46] In the theocratic customs of the Magyars, the two worlds were divided in the following way: The world of the Sun and the world of the Moon.



    The World of the Sun


    The Kende or Sun God ...represented by .......... Leo

    Emese, the Sun-Queen ......................................Virgo

    Judicial power. .................................................Libra

    Police ...............................................................Scorpio

    Traditions ........................................................Sagittarius

    the Treasury ....................................................Capricorn

    The World of the Moon


     The Gyula or Moon-God ..represented by ......    Cancer

     Leadership of the army. ..................................Gemini

     Productivity and supplies .................................Taurus

     the Army. ........................................................Aries

     Education .........................................................Pisces

     Health ............................................................Aquarius


    We can see that the two earthly representatives of heaven were destined to work for the benefit of the nation.

    The Tree of Life motif is widespread among the Hungarian folk art. The scientific term for the Tree of Life is the Symbol of Everlasting Life. The Tree of Life or the Tree which reaches to Heaven ties the center of the earth to the center of the Heavens and the North Star is considered to be the center of the Heavens. According to the beliefs of the Ural-Altaic peoples, before they came to the earth they were living in the blue surroundings of the Tree which reaches to Heaven. These folk beliefs symbolize that the Turanian people have divine origins.

    If we pick up a map of astronomy which deals with the changes in the sky in the past ten thousand years, we will see that the Milky Way is located on the outside and that the Constellations of Gemini and Orion stretch into it and also the constellation of Aries (the Ram, in Sumerian KUS), which brings the beginning of life. The Sumerian name for the North Star was IBILU-E-MAH which meant "the house of the youth who knows everything". The Babylonians accepted this term but applied it to the son of ANU.

IBILU (L.144) = youth

E or HE (L.324) = house

MAH (L.57) = knowledgeable, powerful

     The Magyar legends adopted these beliefs and called the North Star the "Világügyelő .... the caretaker of the world".



The legend of the Caretaker of the World:


     "When the world was created, God stretched up to the top of the heavens and broke off a piece of the sun. From this piece of the sun, he formed the first man and the first woman. Because a little piece of the sun remained in his hand, he created man's two most faithful servants, the horse and the dog. After the first night on earth, the woman found a beautiful golden flower in front of her house. She picked it, covered it with her kerchief and carried it happily to show it to her husband. As they opened the kerchief together, instead of the golden flower, they found a beautiful little baby boy who smiled at them and addressed the woman as "Mother" and the man as "Father". God commanded that the son of man be named "Világügyelő" (Caretaker of the World) and ordained that he become the teacher of the whole of mankind from the beginning to the end of the world."

    Here I have to mention again that in the Magyar language the word "explain" is "magyaráz". Is it possible that there is a connection between this and the legend? According to the legend, the North Star is the home of the Caretaker of the World. A Sumerian cuneiform tablet from 3000 B.C. states that the North Star, IBILU-E-MAH is the star of EN-LIL. This star belongs in the constellation of Ursa Minor and Ursa Major. Because both constellations are the helpers of the Virgin Mother, INNANA, then her son, the Caretaker of the World, is in constant connection with her, the mother of everything which is born on earth.[47] Only in the Hungarian folk beliefs can those astrological connections be found. Therefore we can presume that the Magyar people have very ancient origins.




[1]  Bobula, Ida: Két Ezer Magyar Név Szumir Eredete, Montreal, 1970; Galgoczy, János: A Szumir Kérdés, New York, 1968; Gosztonyi, Kálmán: Összehasonlító Szumer Nyelvtan, Switzerland, 1977 Somogyi, Ede: Szumirok és Magyarok, New York, 1968; Varga Zsigmond: Öt Ezer Év Távlatából, Budapest, 1942;

[2] Gosztonyi, Kálmán: Összehasonlító Szumer Nyelvtan, Switzerland, 1975, p.60. Original title in French: Dictionnaire d'Étymologie Sumérienne et Grammaire Comparée. Paris, 1975.

[3] Kramer, Samuel Noah: The Sumerians, their History, Culture and Character, University of Chicago Press, 1963 p.42-43. Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Az Istergami Oroszlánok Titka, Buenos Aires, 1979 p.13

[4] Bartucz, Lajos: Rassenfrage und Rassenforschung, Budapest, 1941; Foyta, István: Honnan Származunk, Mit adtunk a Világnak, Kik a Ronkonaink?, Buenos Aires, 1961

[5] Keith, Arthur: Report on the Human Remains of the Ur Excavation, 1934; Foyta,

István: Op.Cit.

[6] Dixon, Roland: The Racial History of Man, New York, 1923 Foyta, István: Op.Cit.

[7] Dayton, John: Minerals, Metals, Glazing and Man, London 1978, p.164

[8] Von Luschen, Felix: Volker, Rassen, Sprachen, Berlin 1922; Foyta, István: Op. Cit.


[9] Koenig: Die Aelteste Geschichte der Meder und Perser, Leipzig, 1934; Foyta, István: Op.Cit.

[10] Varga, Zsigmond: Az Ősmagyar Mitológia, Szumir és Ural Altaji Öröksége, San Francisco, 1956

[11] Novotny, Elemér: Sumir Nyelv: Magyar Nyelv, Buenos Aires 1978

[12] Bobula, Ida: The Sumerian Affiliation.

[13] Novotny, Elemér: Op. Cit. p.47.

[14] Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: The Sumerian Wonder, Buenos Aires, 1974, pp.165-167

[15] Novotny, Elemér: Op. Cit. p. 48, and Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Op. Cit. p. 166

[16]Toronyi, Etelka: A Karpatmedence a Kulturák Bö1csője és a Magyarok Őshazája, Buenos Aires, pp.39-43


[17] Kramer, Samuel Noah: History Begins at Sumer, Doubleday Books, 1959, p. 184, 185

[18] Goodrich, Norma Lorre: Ancient Myths, Mentor, 1960, p.16

[19] Badiny-Jos, Ferenc: "Antantémusz", Ősi Gyökér, Jan-Apr. 1990, p. 13


[20] Hommel: Sumer Lesestücke, 41-445, ANTA (Assyrian - ELU) Deimel: Sumer, Akkad gloss. 14; Badiny: Op.Cit.

[21] Langdon: Sumerian Grammar, 202


[22] Kodaly, Zoltán: A Magyar Népzene; Galpin, Francis: The Music of the Sumerians, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1936


[23] Kiszely, István: "Hol éltek őseink?", Magyar Múlt, No 42,1992, p. 18,19


[24] Kodaly, Zoltán: A Magyar Népzene, Budapest, quoted by Ferenc Badiny-Jós in "A Sumir-Magyar Dal Azonosság", Ősi Gyökér, Nov-Dec, 1982


[25] Dayton, John: Op. Cit. pp.75-76

[26] Dayton, John: Op. Cit. p. 207

[27] Childe, V. Gordon: The Danube in Prehistory, Oxford, 1929

[28] Dayton, John: Op. Cit. p.136

[29] Kramer, Samuel Noah: Op. Cit. p.51

[30] Badiny-Jos, Ferenc: "A fokos teremtése"; Ősi Gyökér; 1984, 4-5, p.127-129


[31] Kramer, Samual Noah: The Sumerians, their History Culture and Character, University of Chicago Press, 1963 p. 42-43., Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Az Istergami Oroszlánok Titka, Buenos Aires, 1979 p. 13

[32] Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Az Istergami Oroszlánok Titka, Buenos Aires, 1979 p. 13


[33] Von Orelli, C: Allgemeine Religonsgeschichte. Bonn, 1911, Vol 1, p.9; Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Op. Cit. p.16

[34] Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Op. Cit. p.16

[35] Endrey, Antal: Nimrud Monda, Ősi Gyökér, 1978 No. 5, p. 160

[36] Labat, René: Manuel d'Épigraphie Akkadienne, Paris, 1963


[37] Passuth, László: "Megszolál a sírvilág - Avarkori fejedelmi sír ásatása", p.592, Budapest 1959.

[38] Bobula Ida: Sumir-Magyar Rokonság Kérdése, Buenos Aires, 1982, p .65

[39] Huszka, József: A Magyar Turáni Ornamentika Története, Budapest, 1930; Bobula Ida: Sumir Magyar Rokonság Kérdése. Buenos Aires, 1982

[40] Papp, Gábor: Jó Pásztorok Hagyatéka, Magyar Népművészet, Debrecen, 1993

[41] Bobula, Ida: Op. Cit. p.73

[42] Badiny-Jós, Ferenc: Esztergomi Oroszlánok Titka. Buenos Aires, 1979, p .62

[43] Badiny: Op. Cit. p.77

[44] Grossman, E: Planetorium Babylonicum, p.65


[45] Delitsch: Assyr. Handwörterbuch. p.187, Badiny: Op. Cit. p.64

[46] Bosnyák Sándor: A Hatalom a Néphagyományban; Badiny: Op. Cit. p.82

[47] P. Deimel: Anton: Sumerisches Lexikon, Band 2; Grossman P.: Planetorium Babylonicum (mul MAR GIDZ-DA)