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5. rész



Dab                  to strike lightly as                      tapint                to touch            besenyő

                        with the hand, pat                     topog               making small steps

                        or tap.                                                              while standing in

                        ME,CF dabba = tap                                         one place

                        with the foot                             toppant             an energetic tap with

                        G Tappe = footpring                                         the foot


Dad                  earlier dadde = nursery tata

                        substitute for father                   dada, dadó       variants of atya, father


Daemon           Gk daimon                               Damion            One of the ancient

                                                                                                Magyar names of God

                                                                        Dana                as above

                                                                        Damu               as above           szemere


Dairy                a place where milk is                 tároló               storage             török/kazár


                        ME deirie = female

                        servant (f.dei)

                        OE daege = breadmaker          dagasztó           one who kneads bread


Danaus             Ruler of Argus, etc.                   Dana                see/daemon      szemere


Dance              to move with foot/body Tana, Tenő       name of the Creator

                        rhythmically, etc.                       tenni                 to do, to create

                        ME daunse(n)                           tánc                  originally part of

                        OF danser                                                        religious experience

                        Origin not known                                                                    szemere


Dean                head of faculty                          tan                    material to learn   szemere

                        ME deen                                  tanul                 to learn

                        t.OF deien                                tanít                  to teach

                        L decem = ten                          tanár                 teacher


Deed                that which is done                     tett                   deed

                        ME dede

                        OE ded, var. daed

                        G Tat


Devil                spirit of evil. Satan                    gyúl                  to burn, to flame

                        ME devel                                 (also compare: Deus in L. and

                        OE deofol                                devi in Hindi)

                        L diabolus

                        Gk diabolos,

                        orig. slanderer


Do                   to perform, etc.

                        ME, OE don                            tenni                 to do

                        D doen

                        G tun

                        L dere

                        Gk tithénai


Doe                  female of the deer,                    Recipr. M — E *

                        rabbit, goat, etc.                       őz                     doe

                        OE da, cf. L dama,



Dog                  a domesticated carniv.              dög                  arch. form of „animal”,

                        ME dogge                                                        still used sometimes for

                        OE dogca                                                         dog.                             kazár

                        Origin not known                    -ca, -ka            dimin.suffix

                                                                        Recipr. M — E *

                                                                        kutya                dog

                                                                        Recipr. E — E ***

                                                                        God                 the Creator                   kazár

                                                                        dog                  the created; creature


Door                a movable barrier,                     tár                    to open something that  török

                        commonly turning                                              involves circular motion

                        on hinges                                                          usually on a hinge

                        ME dore                                  tér                    as above, a circular

                        OE duru                                                           motion, a return to

                        cf. G Tűr                                                          original state

                        Icel. dyrr

                        L foris

                        Gk thyra


Dough              flower combined with                dagaszt             to knead dough


                        ME dogh

                        OE dah

                        c.D deeg

                        G. Teig


Dove                any bird of the                          tuba                  a dove              besenyő

                        pidgeon family

                        ME, OE dufe

                        cD duif

                        G taube


Dozen              a group of 12 units                    tucat                 dozen

                        ME dozein                                tizen..(kettő)     over ten (with two)

                        OFM dozeine

                        L duodecim


Dure 2              arch. endure                             tartani               to hold, to last               török

                        ME dure(n)                              tartós                something lasting

                        t.FM durer

                        L durare



Ear 1                organ of hearing                        er, ar                something protruding

                        ME ere                                     hall                   to hear                          körös

                        OE eare

                        c.G Ohr

                        L auris

                        Gk ous


Ear 2                part of a cereal-plant                 er, ar                as above

                        cont.its flower and seed            kalász               flower/seed of a plant

                        ME ere

                        OE ear

                        c.G Ahre


Earl                  British nobleman of                   őr                     guardian

                        rank. Before the Norman

                        invasion, the governor

                        of the great divisions of

                        Wessex, Mercia, etc.

                        ME erl

                        OE eorl

                        c.Icel.: jarl = man

                        warrior as original



Early                before the appointed time          korán               early                 körös

                        ME erli

                        OE earlice (f. aer = soon+

                        + lice-ly)


Eat                   to take into the mouth and         eszik                 to eat

                        swallow nourishment                 eddegél            to eat slowly

                        ME eten                                   étel                   nourishment

                        OE etan                                    edény               vessel to hold food,

                        G. essen                                                           a dish

                        L edere                                    iszik                  to partake of liquids-

                        Gk edein                                                          to drink.


Ebb                  the reflux, or falling tide apály                ebb

                        ME ebbe

                        OE ebba

                        c.D ebbe, eb


Echo                reflexion of soundwaves            hang                 sound

                        L, Gk echo = sound


Edge                the border, or part                   

                        adjacen to a line of

                        division; a brim, or


                        ME egge

                        OE ecg

                        c.G Ecke akin to

                        L acies = edge,point                 ék                    edge, point                   kun


Egg                  Female reproductive                            


                        Scand.,cf.Icel egg

                        ME ey

                        OE aeg                                     ég                     the universe — believed

                        L ovum,                                                            to be egg-shaped. magyar

                        Gk oión                                                (also see menny–mony)      kun                       


Egg2                to incite, or urge

                        t.Scand. of Icel. eggja,

                        der. egg = edge                        ék                                                        kun


Ego                  „I” or self                                  Ég                    heaven, or God      magyar

                        L ego                                       egyed               an individual (or part

                                                                                                of God)

                                                                        egyén               an individual


Ember              small, live coal              parázs              ember                           avar

                        ME eemer, emeri

                        OE aemerge

                        c. Icel eimyrja


Era                   a period of time                        kor                   era                               körös

                        marked by distinctive                ör, örv              circle, formed by a band

                        character, etc.

                        LL var. of aera =

                        = number, or epoch

                        L aera = counters,pl.of

                        aes copper, bronze


Etch                 cut, bite, corrode with

                        acid, etc.

                        t.D etsen

                        G atzen = feed, corrode,

                        akin to eat                                eszik                 to eat


eu-,                  a prefix meaning „good”            jó                     good                jász

                        „well”, chiefly in words

                        of Greek origin

                        t.Gk comb.form of eús,


                        (used as adv. well)


Eve                  Bible’s first woman                   év                     a year come full circle

                        ME, OE Efe                             öv                    a circle, symbol of the

                        L Eva                                                               female principle of the

                        Hebr. Hawwah,expl. as                                    Universe.

                        „mother of living” (hay)

                        but meaning uncertain


Evil                   Inconsistent with the                  bal                    lit.: left. Something bad,

                        moral law                                                         like misfortune, etc.

                        ME, OE yfel                                                                             palóc

                        c.G. Űbel


Eye                  organ of sight                            ég, óg               sky, light           magyar

                        ME,OE ege, d.var.of eage

                        c.G Auge

                        L oculus


Eyre                 jurney in a circuit                       jár                    to walk.            jász

                        ME, t.OF eire = jorney


Ewe                 a female sheep                          juh                    sheep               jász

                        ME.,OE ooi, akin                     jó                     good (affirmative)

                        to L ovis,Gk ois,                       jó, jav               a good, a possession

                        Skt. avi sheep




Fasces              a bundle of rods                        Recipr. M — E *

                        t.L fascis = bundle                    suba                 arch.something    besenyő

                                                                                                consisting of straw

                                                                        zsupp               bundles of twigs


Fear                 a painful feeling of                     fél                     to be afraid             avar

                        impending danger                      félelem              fear

                        ME fere

                        ME faer = sudden attack

                        c.OS far = ambush

                        G. Gefahr


Fell4                 the skin, hide of an animal         bőr                   skin (of anything)          avar

                        ME.,OE.,c.G fell

                        L peleis


Ferment            any of various agents                 forr                   to boil (by heat, or        avar

                        which cause ferment.                                         fermentation.)

                        t.L fermentum =

                        = heaven, agitation


Fetid                having an offensive                    büdös               fetid                  besenyő

                        odor. Also: foetid

                        L fetidus, var. of



Fetor                a stench, also foetur                  bűz                   stench               besenyő


Field                 a piece of open ground föld                  the Earth; the soil          palóc

                        OE., ME., c.G. feld                  Recipr. M — E *

                                                                        lap, lapály         a flat piece of land


File                   any device, as a cabinet            választ              to separate.                  palóc

                        in which papers are                                           May consider:

                        arranged.                                  Recipr. M — E *

                        F. fil = thread, strip                   lap                    a sheet of paper

                        L filum = thread                        lapos                a flat surface

                        F. file = file, row


Fire                  the active principle of                parázs              live coal                        avar

                        burning                         pörzsöl             to scorch

                        ME., OE fyr

                        c.D vuur                                   villám                lightning, as related to

                        G. Feuer                                                           vuur

                        Gk. pyr                                    pír                    red. The color of fire


Flake                ME.,OE flac, which                  pille                  Something that palóc

                        occurs in flying.                                     flutters like a butterfly

                        cf.Icel. flaka: to be                                            ,eye-lashes, etc.

                        loose                                        Recipr. M — E *

                                                                        lap                    something flat

                                                                        libeg                 flutters

                                                                        repül                 to fly


Flask                a bottle shaped container          palack              flask                 palóc

                        OE flasce

                        cf. Flagon


Food                something that is eaten  étel (+ f)           food                 besenyő

                        ME fode                                   étek

                        OE foda                                   Recipr. M — M **

                        cf. feed, fodder = foster            étel — élet        sustenance — life


Fool 1              one who lacks sense                 bolond              fool                  palóc

                        ME fol

                        OF ? g.l. follis = bellows          


Freya               Scand.myth.goddes of              Firuna               Avar name for   avar

                        fruitfulness, daughter of                         representing mother

                        Njord and sister of Frey                                    Earth’s spring aspect

                                                                                                (Virona, Firuna = mother

                                                                                                of flowers. See: Ipolyi and



Furrow             a narrow trench made               barázda            furrow                          avar

                        in the ground, esp. with Recipr. M—M ** and M—E*

                        plow                                         rovás                to carve into something

                        ME forwe, furgh(e)                                           hard

                        OE furch

                        L porca: ridge between part                  ridge, shore




Gap                  1. a break/opening                    Recipr. M — E *

                        2. vacant space/interval vágás                a gape, opening            kabar

                        3. wide divergence                    vály                  to make an opening

                        ME t. Scand,.,cf. Sw.               vályú                a carved, wooden vessel

                        gap = opening, chasm               köböl               water container

                                                                        öböl                 bay. (the two latter are

                                                                                                female principles as

                                                                                                opposed to the b-k

                                                                                                word group.)


Garden             a plot of ground devoted           kör                   circle                            körös

                        to the cultiv. of plants                keret                frame

                        ME gardin                                kerít, kerítés     to enclose, fence

                        t.ONF of Gmc. orig.                 kert                  garden

                        cf. G garten


Garland            a wreath, or string of                 kör                   circle                körös

                        flowers, etc.                              korona             crown (fem.principle)

                        ME garlande, t. OF


Garment           an article of clothing,

                        outer covering

                        ME., t.OF garment,                  körít                 to encircle         körös

                        deriv.garnir, garnish                   körítés              garnish


Garter              a fastening, often in a                 kör, karika       circle, hoop      körös

                        form of a band                          kalács               a soft, rounded part of

                        ME, t. ONF gartier, der.                                   of the knee. (Lit. a

                        garet, the bend of the                                        round, soft bread)

                        knee, der. Celtic

                        garra = leg


Gas                  a substance possessing  kusza                a disorganized state

                        perfect molecular                                              of matter

                        mobility                                    gőz                   steam                           kazár

                        Gk chaós


Gate                 a movable barrier                      gát                    a barrier                       kazár

                        1. a swinging frame

                        2. an opening/passage

                        ME gat, gate

                        OE gatu, gates, pl. a

                        gate opening in a wall                köz                   an opening


Gather              to bring something into

                        one company/aggregate

                        ME gader(en)

                        OE gaderian, der. geador

                        = together, akin to gaed =         köz                   common                       kazár

                        = fellowship, cf. together,          közösség          community,



Gauze               any thin, transparent

                        1. fabric (after the city

                        Gaza)                                       Géza                a Magyar name.            kazár

                        2. a thin haze                            gőz, köd           steam, fog


Gear                 a mechanism for trans-

                        mitting or changing

                        motion on wheels                      kerék               wheel                           körös

                        ME gere

                        t.Scand., cf. Icel gervi

                        garvi = gear, apparel,

                        akin to OE garwe, pl.

                        equipment, ready


Gazelle any of various small                   gúzs                  twist, as the horns of

                        antelopes                                                          the antelope                  kazár

                        t.F.t. Ar.m ghazal                      kecske             goat


Gehenna           OT valley of Hinnom,                gyúl                  to burn             magyar/kun

                        near Jerusalem, a place hon                   home (hún wordgroup)

                        for burning refuse

                        t.LL., t.Gk Géenna

                        t.Heb. gé-Hinnóm=hell,

                        short for gé-ben-Hinnom,

                        lit.valley of son of Hinnom



Geo-                a word element meaning            kő                    stone, rock

                        „the Earth”

                        t.Gk comb.form gé


Germ                1. microbe

                        2. rudiment of a living                csíra                 sprout                           körös

                        thing, an embryo in its

                        early stages

                        t.F germe

                        g.L germen = sprout


German            of or pertaining to                     ger                   körös vocabulary’s       körös

                        Germany                                                          circle

                        t.L. Germanus                           manó                man.

                        Origin not known                    lit. „the circle of man (of people)”

                                                                        it is a very ancient, pre-nation   

                                                                        description of a people, in which the

                                                                        körös group dominated, quite possibly

                                                                        its matriarchal component.

                                                                        Mén                 name of God of the

                                                                                                hún group

                                                                        Recipr. M — M **

                                                                        német               German. Orig. related to:

                                                                        nemez               to beget

                                                                        nemző              progenitor


Gird                 to encircle with a belt                gyűrű                ring                               körös


Girdle               a belt, cord, etc.                       kör                   circle                            körös

                        worn around the waist               körít                 to encircle

                        ME., OE gyrdel, der.                karika               hoop

                        girdan                                       gyűr                  to crumple a material

                                                                        gyűrű                ring


Girl                   a female child or young gyermek           a child                          körös


                        ME gurle                                  kör                   circle (symbol of

                        OE gyrl in gyrden =                                          female principle)

                        = virgin, goddess

                        CF., LG gör(e) = a young



Girth                 circumference                           kör                   circle                körös

                        ME girth, gerth             kerék               wheel

                        t. Scand. cf. Icel

                        gjördh = girdle, hoop                karika               hoop


Gist                  the substance or pith                 geszt                 a hard, round substance,

                        of a matter, essential part                                  a kernel

                        OF 3rd pers.sing.pres. of          gesztenye          a chestnut                     kazár

                        gesirlie = rest

                        g.L. iacere = to throw


Goat                 any animal of the gen.                gida                  a young goat                 kazár  

                        capra                                                                or deer

                        ME goe, goot

                        OE gat

                        G. Geiss, akin to

                        L haedus = kid


Gob                 a mass, or lump                        göb                  a knot                           kabar

                        ME gobbe = lump, mass

                        appar. OF go(u)be, ult. of        

                        Gallic origin


God                 the one Supreme being  Kadisa             God, the creative          kazár

                        ME.,OE., c.D god                                            principle

                        G Gott                                      Keddasszony    the female principle

                        Icel. goth

                        Goth. guth


Gore3              a triangular piece of


                        ME, OR gara = corner

                        G gehre = gusset, der.

                        gar = spear                               gerely               spear                            körös


Gorge               a narrow cleft                           garat                 gullet                           

                        ME, OE throat                         guga, gége        throat

                        LL gurga

                        L gurges = stream

                        gula = throat


Gout                 a constitutional disease  köszvény          gout                  kazár

                        ME goute

                        OF L gutta = a drop

                        ML gout


Gyp1                US slang to swindle                  csap, becsap    to swindle        

                        Origin not known


Gun                  a metallic tube, etc.                   kan                   a projecting part,   kun

                        a projectile                                                       lit. a male

                        ME gunne, gonne, appar.

                        short for Gunilda

                        Origin not known



Halo                 a radiance surrounding kör                   circle                körös

                        the head                                   körít                 surrounds

                        t.L halos

                        t.Gk disk, a circular0

                        path the oxen trod out


Harp                a musical instrument,                 hárfa                 harp, originally     körös

                        consisting of a soundbox,          húr+fa              string (gut)+tree = a tree

                        a pillar and strings                                             with strings, which are

                        OE harpe                                                         made of gut.

                        ME harp(e)

                        G Harfe

                        Icel. harpa


Hay 1               grass cut and dried                    haj                    hair                               körös

                        for use of fodder                       hajlik                something that bends

                        OE., ME. heg, hieg                   hajlékony          flexible

                        c. G Heu


Hay 2               a kind of old country                 hajlik                to bend                         körös

                        dance with winding                   hajlong             to bend repeatedly,

                        movements. 15.c.                                             as in the wind, during

                                                                                                dance, as greeting, etc.


Haze 1             an aggregation of min.   gőz                   vapor                           kazár

                        suspended particles of               köd                  fog

                        vapor, dust, etc.

                        Origin not known


Heart                a hallow, muscular organ           kör                   circle.                           körös

                        OE hearte                                 keringés            circulation

                        ME herte

                        G Herz

                        Fr. coeur


He                    a male being                             hím                   a male being

                        OE, ME he

                        Ofris he,

                        cf. she, her, it, hence

                        here, hither


Hemp               a tall, annual moraceous            kender              hemp                            kun


                        OE, ME henep, haenep

                        c.G Henf

                        Gk canabis


Hen                  the female of domestic


                        OE hana = cock                       kan                   a male                          kun

                        G Henne


Hint                  an indirect, or covert                 hint                   to disseminate, kun

                        suggestion, var. of                                             strew

                        hent, der.hent v. seize


Hit l                  to deal a blow/stroke                üt                     (h)it                             

                        ME hitte, hutte, hete

                        Origin not known


Hole                 an opening through                    Recipr. M — E *

                        anything                                    luk, lik, lék        hole                  körös

                        OE.,ME hol = hole

                        c.G Hohl = hallow


Hallow             1. having a hole/cavity

                        3. sunken                                  hal                    to sink              körös

                        4. of sound: not resonant,          halk                  quiet

                        muffled, deep                            hall                   to hear

                        OE hohl = hallow

                        ME halou, halue


Home               a house, apartment, fixed                                                          kun


                        OE, ME ham = home               hon                   home, both country

                        G Heim = home                                                and residence


Homo               primate genus, which

                        includes man                             hím                   male                             kun

                        L homo                                    hun, kun           man


Horn                a hard, projected, often köröm              nail                               körös

                        curved and pointed,                  kör,                  circle,

                        hallow, perm.growth.                görbe               bent

                        A wind instrument                     kürt                  horn

                        OE horn

                        ME horn(e)

                        G Horn, akin to

                        L cornu


Hussar              it originates this             huszár               a special Magyar

                        word very incorrectly                                        military group

                        from the Serbian


Hour                a space of time equal                kör                   circle                            körös

                        to 1/24th of a solar day köröz, kerül      circular motions

                        ME ure, ore, hore                     örv, örű            a circular something

                        g.L hora = time

                        t.Gk akin to year


House              a building for human                  kas                   hive                              kazár

                        habitation                                  kas                   a woven, basketlike

                        OE hus                                                             structure to keep small

                        ME hous                                                          fowl safe

                        c.D huis                                    ház                   house

                        G Haus                         kástyú              early castles, made of


                                                                        hézag                something that is

                                                                                                hallow on the inside


Human             pertaining to, or                        hún, kan           a male, a man               kun

                        characteristic of man                 manó                man

                        t.L humanus                              manyó              woman

                                                                        menyecske       a young woman



Igloo                an Eskimo hut                           ég                     sky, also the vault  magyar

                        Eskimo: house                                                  of the sky

                                                                        Igló, Igal           towns in Hungary


Ignite                kindle

                        L ignis = fire                             égni                  to burn             magyar


Ilk                    Scot/N.Engl. each,

                        family, class, kind

Ilka                  Scot.: Ilk+a, the „a”                  Ilka                  frequent Magyar

                        an indef. art.                                                     family name. Please

                                                                                                note the„a”

                                                                                                which is the same as

                                                                                                in Magyar


Iona                 a small island in the                   Ion                   name of the seafaring       jász

                        Hebrides, off W.Scotl.                          jász. In view of the

                        Center of early Celtic                                        above, this may well be

                        Christianity                                                       Ion+a, „a” as

                                                                                                (see for history in

                                                                                                Magyar Adorján’s

                                                                                                Ősműveltség, or

                                                                                                Tomory’s Kezdeteink.)


Iron                  a ductile, malleable                    Író                    something fluid       magyar

                        silver-white metallic                   érc                   ore

                        element                         analog:

                        ME iren, ysen                           víz–vas isern–water–víz

                        OE iren, isen, isern

                        G eisen


Island               a tract of land, surrounded

                        by water                                   iza, isa              water                besenyő

                        OE iland, igland, f.ig, ieg =

                        = island

                        ME iland, yland


Ithunn               Scand.mythol. Goddess                                    A lot of linguistic and                                                                                         religious connotations

                        wife of Bragi, who guarded                                                                   hun

                        in Ashgard the apples                hun                   human in the hun word 

                        of the Gods                                                      group

                                                                        Bar-ata             Creator in the               avar

                                                                                                tradition, etc.

                                                                        ős                     ancient

                                                                        kert                  garden



Jar3                  a turn, or turning.                      jár                    to walk                         jász

                        Var.of char3, chare,                  kör                   circle

                        cf. ajar


Jassy                a city in Rumania                       Jászvásár          ancient city,      jász


                                                                                                by the Jász


Jat                    a member of an             Játa                  one of the         jász

                        important Indo–Aryan                                       names of

                        people, living mostly                                          the ancient Jász.

                        in NW India


Jay                   any of several crested and         szajkó              a bird imit. speech

                        uncrested birds of the                száj                  human mouth

                        corvine family.                                                  The jay

                        ME.,OF.,CF.,ML gaius ?

                        Origin not known


Jewel                a cut or polished stone              jó, jav               a good, a belonging.   jász

                        ME iuel                                                            something precious

                        T.AF ult.der.

                        L iocus = jest, sport


Jingle                to make clinking or                   cseng                jingle                szemere

                        tinkling sounds

                        ME gynglen, appar.imit.

                        cf. G jengelen


Jo, pl. joes        Scot. sweetheart. Also: jó                     good                jász

                        joe, var. of joy


Journey            a course of travel from  jár                    to walk             jász

                        one place to another

                        ME jorney

                        OF jorneé – a day’s time

                        L diurnur of the day.



Jupiter              ancient deity of the                    Jó                     Supreme being

                        Romans                                                            of the Jász


Jute                  a Germanic tribe which Ját, jász            a group of the               jász

                        invaded Britain from the                                    ancient Magyars

                        continent and settled there

                        in the 5th century.



Kayak              An Eskimo hunting                    hajó                  boat, ship                     körös

                        craft. Also kaiak                       hajlik                something

                                                                                                that bends


Key1                an instrument for                       kulcs, kulycs     key                               körös

                        fastening or opening a lock

                        OE key(e), kay(e)

                        OE caeg

                        Ofris kei, kai


Kid                  young goat                                gida                                          kazár

                        ME appar.t.Scand.

                        cf. Icel kidh

                        Sw and Dan kid


Kidney             bean shaped, glandular  kád                  a vessel cont.water       kazár

                        organ                                        kászú                as above

                        ME kidney, f.kiden

                        Origin not known


Kin                   one’s relatives               kan                   male                             kun

                        collectively                                rokon               kin

                        OE.,ME cynn                           (see words expressing males of a

                        OHG chunni                             species within the k–n group:

                        Goth kuni                                 kandúr              tomcat

                        Gmc root = to L-gen.               gúnár                gander

                        Skt jan = beget


King                 male sovereign              kan                   male principle, a man  kun

                        OE.,ME cynig, cyning

                        D konig

                        G Kőnig

                        Icel. konungr

                        Sw konung

                        Dan. Konge


                        King post = vertical                                          symbol of the male

                        post                                                                  principle: an erect post

                                                                                                Words belonging within

                                                                                                the same group

                                                                                                alphabetically and




                                                                                                cameo (orig.n.k.)       

                                                                                                candle (Lat)

                                                                                                cannon (Gk)

                                                                                                gun (Scand.)

                                                                                                kindle (Scand.)


                                                                                                Also: see under „kin”


Kiss                 to touch/press                           Recipr. M — E *

                        with the lips                              csók                 kiss                  kazár

                        OE cyssan

                        c.G. küssen

                        c.G. Kuss


Kit 1                1. a set of tools, etc.

                        2. The case containing them

                        ME kyt, kitt appar.

                        t.MD kitte, kind of a tub           kas                   a type of container        kazár

                        cf. Norv. kitte = bin                  kászú                a container for holding

                                                                                                liquids. A tub.


Kit 2                A kind of small violin                 Recipr. M —E *

                        used by dancing masters           tök                   gourd, used as the       kazár

                        from 16–18th century                                       sound-chambers of

                        Origin not known                                            ancient violin/guitar

                                                                                                type of instruments

                                                                        citera ?


Kitchen            a room/place for cooking

                        ME kitchene                                                                             kazár/  kabar

                        OE cycene

                        L coquina                                 köveszt to cook with heated


                                                                        konyha             kitchen


Knight              OE cniht = boy             kún, kan           a male              kun

                        c.D., G Knecht = male



Knock              to strike a sounding                   kő                    stone                kun

                        blow                                         kemény            hard

                        ME knokke, unexplained

                        var. of knoke                          koppan             knock

                        OE cnocian

                        c. Icel knoka ?

                        ? imit. origin. ?



Labarum           an ecclesiastical banner Recipr. M — Gk *****

                        t.L corresp. to                          bál, balita          a pole. (male symb.)

                        Gk labaron                               lobogó              a flag, orig. from

                        Origin not known                    lap                    a flat surface                 palóc

                                                                        lobog                to flutter in the wind.


Label                a slip of paper or other  lap                    a flat surface, a             palóc

                        material                                                            page of a book,                                    ME.,t.OF, ult.der.                                                a slip of paper

                        L lamb = lick


Lady                a woman of good soc.              Lavona             mother Earth of the       palóc

                        standing                                                            Palóc group

                        ME lavedy, levedi                     Vilona              as above

                        OE hlaeftige? Orig.meaning



Lake                a body of fresh water                lé                      liquid               

                        ME lacu = stream, pond,


                        OE as above

                        OF.,t.L lacus = lake, tank         lék                    a hole cut into a frozen

                                                                                                body of water, or a



Language          communication by voice            nyelv                tongue, as language

                        ME., t.OF langage,

                        longue = tongue

                        g.L lingua                                  nyelv                tongue as body-part


Lap                  the part of clothing                    lap                    a flat surface of palóc

                        that lies on the front                                           something

                        part of the garment

                        ME lappe = unexplained

                        var. of lape

                        OE lapian

                        c.MLG lapen, akin to

                        L lambere

                        Gk láptein = lick, lap


Lazy                 idle.                                          lusta                 lazy                  szarmata

                        Origin not known


Leaf                 one of the expanded,                lap                    a flat surface     palóc

                        usually green organs,                 levél                 leaf

                        born by a stem

                        ME leef

                        OE leaf

                        G laub


Leap                to spring through                       libben               to spring lightly   palóc

                        the air

                        ME lepe

                        OE hlepan

                        G laufen


Left                  belonging to the side                 Recipr. M — E *

                        turned W. when facing N.         bal                    left                    palóc

                        OE left, lyft = weak

                        cf.MD.,MLG lucht


Lens                 a piece of transparent                lencse               lentil                

                        glass with two opposite                         also lens


                        L lentil


Level                having an even surface  lap                    flat surface        palóc

                        ME livel

                        OF ult. L libella, dim. of

                        libra = balance, level                 libeg                 it sways

                                                                        Recipr. M — E * and M — M **

                                                                        billeg                tilts, like the moving

                                                                                                part of the scale.


Levin                arch. lightning                            Recipr. M — E *

                        ME leven(e)                             arch. villő          flash of light                  palóc

                        OE+leamne or the like  villám                lightning

                        c.Goth lauchmuni =                   mennykő          lightning, also meteor



Life                  1. the condition which               levegő              air                    palóc

                        disting. animals and                   Recipr. M — E *

                        plants from inorg. objects          él                      alive

                        10. vivacity, sprightliness,          eleven               sprightly

                        spirit                                         lélek                 spirit

                        ME., OE lif

                        c.D liff = body

                        G Leib = body

                        Icel. lif = body


Linen                fabric woven of flax–yarn          len                    flax                   marmar

                        thread made of flax yarn            len–vászon        linen

                        ME lin(n)en n.adj.

                        lin — linen + –en


Lip                   either of the two fleshy  lap                    flat surface        palóc

                        parts of the mouth                     libben               to flutter

                        OE lippa                                   lebeny              lobe

                        D lip

                        G Lippe

                        L labium


Lisp                  a speech defect             Recipr. M — E *

                        OE wlispian                              selypít               lisp

                        cf. D lispen

                        G lispeln


Lobe                a roundish projection                lebeny              lobe                  palóc

                        of division, as of an                   (related words: lap, libben, etc.)

                        organ, a leaf


Lock                a device securing a door,          Recipr.E — E **

                        etc.                                           lock — close                            körös

                        ME, OE loc = fastening            lakat                 lock

                        OE lucan                                  Recipr. M — M **

                        D lviken                                    lakat — kulcsol

                        Icel. luka                                  Recipr. M — E *

                        Goth galukan = shut, close        kaloda              stocks


Low                 Situated not far from the            Recipr. M — E *

                        ground                                      al                      the bottom part

                        ME lowe, lohe, earlier lah         alacsony           low

                        cf.Icel lagr, akin to lie


Loose               free from bonds                        laza                  loose                szarmata

                        ME los, loos

                        Scand., cf.Icel lauss

                        D., G loose = free


Lope                to move or run with a                libben               move with a light step  palóc

                        bounding step                           lép                    to step

                        Late ME var. obs.

                        loup = leap

                        Scand., Icel hlaupa


Lux                  L. light                                      luk                    a hole (through which

                                                                                                light may come)            körös

                                                                        Recipr. M — L ****

                                                                        csillag               star

                                                                        csillog               twinkles



Mac                 Mc, M’ Irish/Gallic                   mag                  kernel               magyar

                        son                                           mag                  son


Macaroni          a kind of pasta of

                        Italian origin

                        Lgk makaria food of

                        broth and pearl barley               mag                  seed of a plant    magyar

                        orig.: happiness             Magor, Makar  the „Happy God”

                                                                                                of the Magyars


Mahabharata    one of the two chief

                        epics of India

                        Skt. maha = great +                  magas               high

                        bharata = descendant                Bar-ata             the Creator’s name

                        of a king or a tribe named                                 in Avar

                        bharata                                     barát                friend, friar


Maiden girl, young, unmarried                megye              earth                 magyar

                        woman,vernerian var.                Magda             personification of

                        of maeght                                                         mother Earth in Magyar

                                                                        méz                  honey

                        c.G Magd = maid                     Recipr. M — E *

                                                                        szem                 seed of the wheat, fem.

                                                                                                symbol of the Szemere



Main                chief, principal, leading  Mén                 name of God of the Huns

                        ME maegen = strength                          also the name of man

                        ME meyn                                 Magor              name of Sun personified,

                        c. Icel megin = strength                         symbol of strength


Maize               a widely cultivated                    Recipr. M — E *

                        cereal plant                               szem                 seed                 szemere

                        Sp. maiz

                        t. Antillean maysi,

                        mahiz                                        mag                  seed

                        t. Arowak marise


Man                 an individual at the                    manó                man                              kun

                        highest development of  manyó              woman

                        the animal species                     mén                  stallion. Personification

                        ME mann(e)                                                     of the Moon. Name of

                        OE mannian                                                      God as perceived in



Mane               a long hair growing on   mén                  stallion                          kun

                        the back of the neck, esp.

                        that of horses’

                        OE, ME manu

                        G Mahne


Mantle              a loose, sleeveless                     mente               cloak                            kun


                        OE maentel

                        L mantellum, mantelem =

                        = cloak


Mar                  to damage, impair, ruin  mar                  to ruin, mostly by

                        ME marre                                                         a corrosive       marmar

                        OE merran = hinder

                        OH G merrien = hinder


Mead 1            Poetic: meadow                        mező                mead                szemere

                        ME mede                                 megye              land

                        OE maed


Mead 2            1. an alcoholic liquor                 méz                  honey               szemere

                        made by fermenting

                        honey and water

                        2. any of various non-               nedű                 liquid

                        alcoholic beverages


Mellow 1. soft and full flavored  mellő                soft                   marmar

                        from ripeness

                        2. softened, toned down

                        ME mellowe

                        OE meru = tender, soft


Mess                dirty/untidy condition                 Recipr. M —  E *

                        ME mess                                  szemét              rubbish, dirt

                        t.OF put (on the table)

                        L missum = sent, put                                                                 szemere


Mill                  a building in which

                        manufacture is carried


                        ME mylle, myln             malom              mill                   marmar

                        OE mylen

                        L mola = mill


Monad             any simple, single celled            monno              archaic one       kun


                        LL monas

                        Gk. unit

Money             a medium of exchange   monno              one. A unit.       kun

                        any measure of value

                        ME moneye                              mony                egg. Served as a

                        OF moneia                                                       unit of weight up to

                        L moneta                                                          the early 1900’s.


Mono               word element denoting  monno              one                               kun


                        Gk comb. form of monos =

                        = alone


Month              approx. 1/12th of the solar        Mén                 personification of          kun

                        year                                                                  the moon, signifying

                        OE moneth                                                       its constant coming

                        OE monath                                                       and going with a

                        G Mond = moon                                              white stallion.

                                                                        menni               to wander


Moon               a body which revolves  mén                  see above                     kun

                        around the Earth

                        ME mone

                        OE mona

                        OHG mano, akin to

                        Gk mene = moon

                        mén = month

                        L mensis = month


Morsel             a bite, a mouthful, a                   morzsa             morsel              marmar

                        small portion                             morzsol            to crumble

                        ME, OF mors = bite


Moss                any of the criptogamic   moha                moss                szemere


                        OE mos = bog

                        ME = mos(se)

                        D mos = moss

                        G moos = bog, moss


Mote 1             a particle or speck,                   Recipr. M — E *

                        esp. of dust                                                                               szemere

                        ME., OE mot = speck              szem                 speck

                        D mot = grit, sawdust


Mother             a female parent             tér, tár              female aspect of creation

                        ME moder                                nedű                 moisture, as primordial

                        OE moder                                                        matter. Egypt: Neith

                        D moeder                                 Recipr. M — E *

                        G Mutter                                  szem                 eye; a seed of this shape

                        Icel. modhir                                                      fem. symbol of matter

                        L mater                                                            of the Szemere group.

                        Gk meter                                                          Also see Semele

                        Skt. mator                                                                                szemere


Motion             the process of moving               mozog              moves              szemere

                        ME, L motio


Mow2              1. a place in the barn,

                        where hay, or sheaves of

                        grain, etc. are stored

                        2. a heap/pile of hay                  muhar               grass (genus Panicum)

                        OE move                                  Muhi                a name of a puszta

                        OE muga, muha                        mag                  seed     szemere/magyar

                        Icel mugi


Muck               farmyard dung, etc.                   maszat              muck               

                        ME muk                                   (maki                human excrement;

                        t. Skand.,cf.myki =                                           slang)

                        = cowdung


Myth                a traditional or legendary           mese                a fictional story


                        NL mythus

                        LL mythos, Gk. word,

                        speech, tale, legend, myth


Morose            gloomily, or sullenly                   marcona           morose             marmar

                        Ill-humored, as a person,


                        L morosus



Nag 1               to torment by persist.                nyaggat nag                   kun

                        faultfinding                                nyűg                 nuisance

                        cf. MLG naggen = irritate

                        Icel. nagga = grumble,

                        nagg = grambling


Neck                1. the part that connects            nyak                 neck                 kun

                        the head to the trunk                 ék                    wedge

                        5. any narrow, connecting         Recipr. M — E *

                        or projecting part                      kan                   male and its symbol


Nog 2              1. a brick-shaped piece            ék                    wedge                          kun

                        of wood built into a wall

                        2. any wooden peg, pin or


                        Origin ? (var. of obs. knag,      Recipr. M – E *

                        ME knagge = speer, peg)         kún, kan           male symbol


Noise              loud, harsh sound                      Recipr. M — E *

                        ME, OF,L nausea                     zaj


Nomad             one of the race or tribe  Recipr. M — E *                                  kun

                        without fixed abode                  menni               to walk

                        L nomas, t.Gk. roaming


No                   a word of dissent, denial           nem                  no

                        ME, OE na

                        Icel. nei, cf. ne = not                 ne                     not


Non                 prefix, meaning not                    ne                     not

                        L non = not


Nook               a corner in a room                    ék                    a wedge, a corner         kun

                        ME noke                                  Recipr. M — E *

                        cf.d.Norv. nok = hook              kampó              hook


Note                in music: a musical                     nóta                  a song

                        mark                                        Recipr. M — E * and M — M **

                        ME, L nota = mark                   dana                 a song


Nugget             a lump of something;                 mag                  around kernel   magyar

                        a lump of native gold.

                        Appar. der. of D. nug =

                        = lump, block



O’                    a prefix meaning                        Ó                     old, ancient,

                        „descendant” in Irish                                         ancestral

                        names, like O’Brian,etc.


Ocean              a vast body of water                 Ó-kíjó              „the ancient snake”

                        t. L oceanus                              hajló                 something that bends

                        t. Gk okeanos, orig. the            (that certain „great stream” was once

                        great stream supposed to          symbolized by a snake biting into its

                        encompass the Earth                 own tale.)                                             kun


Od                   archaic, or dial. reduced            ad                    to give

                        form of God                             adó                  one who gives


Ode                 a poem intended to be              ó-dal                old song


                        LL oda

                        Gk oidé, contr. of aoidé


Of                    a particle indicating                   Recipr. M — E *

                        distance, separation                  bó(l)                 of, from

                        ME, OE, c.G, L ab

                        CK apó


Old                  far advanced in years                Ó                     old

                        or life

                        ME, OE ald, eald

                        D ond

                        orig.p.p. and akin to

                        Icel. ala = nourish


On                   prep., a particle ex-                  -on                   suffix meaning on

                        pressing a position above

                        ME.,OE on, an

                        D aan

                        G an

                        Icel a

                        Goth ana, akin to

                        Gk aná = up, upon


Orchard           an enclosed piece of

                        ground devoted to the

                        cultivation of fruit trees

                        OE orceard, ortyard,


                        L hortus                                    kert                  garden              körös


Ore                  a metal bearing                         érc                   ore


                        ME (o)or = metal                     Recipr. M — E *

                        OE ar = brass                           réz                    brass


Orphan a child berieved by                                árva                  orphan

                        death of both parents

                        ME t.LL orphanus

                        t.Gk orphanos = without

                        parents, berieved


Ox                   adult, castrated male of ökör                 ox

                        the genus bos

                        ME oxe

                        OE oax



Pail                   a container of wood

                        metal, etc.

                        ME peyle

                        OE paegel = wine vessel

                        akin to                                      Recipr. M — E *

                        G Pegel = water gauge  köböl               water container   palóc/kab


Pal                   a comerade. A chum.                Pál                   man in Palóc dial.          palóc

                        t. gypsy, dissimilated var.          Bál                   name of God in Palóc

                        of plae, pral = brother               Béla                 personification of the Sun


Palace              orig. the Palatine Hills                palota               palace. Also consider the pal.

                        in Rome                                                            above. A place of splendour,

                        ME palaic                                                         of light. House of the Sun.


Pale 1               a whitish appearance                 béla                  white shine                    palóc

                        ME, t.OF., g.L pallidus


Pale 2               a stake or picket, as of  pálca                symbol of Bál

                        a fence. Limits/bounds  bálvány a stake. Also as above  palóc

                        F pal                                        balita                a stake. Also as above

                        L palus = stake


Palette              t.f. a flat bladed                         Recipr. M — E *

                        implement                                 lap                    a flat surface                 palóc

                        L pala = spade, showel


Pallet 1 1. a bed or mattress                  Recipr. M — E*

                        2. a small or poor bed               lap                    a flat surface                 palóc

                        ME pailet,                                lapos                flat

                        OF dim. of paille

                        L palea = chaff


Pallet 2 a flat blade                                Recipr. M — E

                                                                        lap                    a flat surface                 palóc


Palm                 inner surface of a hand  Recipr. M — E*

                        Palmacae family                        lap                    a flat surface                 palóc

                        L palma = palm, hand,  lapát                 a shovel

                                    blade or

                                    oar                               pálca                a rod or cane

                        ME paume


Palm 2              any plant of the                         pálma               orig. the tree of Pál or Bál,

                        palmacae family                                                the poplar tree

                        ME.,OE.,L palma =                                          see the above P-l

                        = palm-tree, identical                                        word-group.                 palóc

                        with palm


Paradise           2. an intermediate place            (The P-r root of the Avars denotes a

                        for souls                                   transitory state of some kind, like

                        3. Garden of Eden                    pír = blush, pára = mist, parázs = ember,

                        ME paradis                              etc.)                                                     avar

                        LL paradisus

                        Gk paradeisos

                        OPers.Paridaeza=                    vár                   a castle,                        avar

                        = enclosure                                                       enclosed by walls


Parcel               a package, or bundle

                        ME.,OF.,ML particella

                        L particula = particle                 perc                 particle                         avar


Part                  a portion, division of                 választ              to part, to divide           avar

                        a whole

                        ME parte(n)                             part                  the bank of a river

                        F partir                                     perem               border, brim

                        L partire, pars


Path                 a way beaten or trodden           Recipr. M — E*

                        by the feet of men or                 csapás              path                  besenyő


                        ME, OE paeth

                        G Pfad


Peel 2               a shovel-like implement Recipr. M — E*

                        for putting bread into                 lap                    a flat surface     palóc

                        the oven                                   lapos                flat

                        ME pele = shovel                     lapát                 a shovel

                        g.L pala = spade


Peg                  a pin of wood or other              bak                  male principle symbolized

                        material, driven into                                           by a rod, peg, etc.

                        something                                 bök                  poke                            kabar

                        ME pegge

                        D peg

                        LG pigge


Pellet                a round, spheroid body

                        of small size

                        ME pelet

                        OF pelote, der.             Recipr. M — E*

                        L pila = ball                              labda                ball                               palóc

                                                                        labdacs             a small spheroid body


Pelt 2               skin of a beast, with                  bőr                   skin, pelt                       avar

                        or without the hair

                        Origin not known


Penal                of or pertaining to                     bűn                   sin                    pannon

                        punishment                               bűntető penal

                        ME., L poenalis =                     büntetés            punishment

                        = pertaining to

                        punishment, penalty,



Pence               a penny, when value is  pénz                 orig. a round, thin object

                        indicated                                                           as the scales of a fish, later

                                                                                                the coin of any monetary

                                                                                                system. pannon


Peter                one of the twelve apostles         Petúr, Bisúr      Besenyő name of the Creator,

                        ME., L petrus = stone                                       symbol a pond with a rock

                        Syriac Kéfa = stone                  kő                    stone                besenyő


Petit                 small, etc.                                 pici                   small. Part of an extended

                        ME der. of Roman stem                                    word-group nonexistent

                        pit = small                                                         in Gk, L., E.,F or other

                                                                                                related languages   besenyő


Petty                of small importance                   pici                   as above                  besenyő

                        ME pety

                        OF petit


Phaeton            a light, fourwheeled                   futó                  phaeton. Basic word

                        carriage                                    fut                    to run

                        F.m. phaéton

                        L phaethon


Phallus              a male reprod.organ                  bálvány an erect pole, as symbol of

                        L.,Gk phallos                                                    the male reproductive organ

                                                                        Bál, Pál            God of creation. Symbol a

                                                                                                pole.                             palóc


Picket               a pointed post, stake                 bak                  anything pointed. Symbol

                        F. picket, dim. of pick                                       of the male principle

                                                                        bök                  to poke


Piece                a limited quantity of                   pici                   small

                        something                                 Recipr. M — E*

                        ME pece                                  csipet               a small piece of something,

                        OF g.Rom pettis=                                             a pinch             besenyő

                        = broken piece

                        Celtic orig. (piece of



Pike                 1. a sharp point             ék                    a sharp point of anything

                        2. the pointed end of                 bök                  poke

                        anything                                    bak                  male principle               kabar

                        ME pik

                        OE pik


Pike-man          a soldier, armed with                 baka                 a footsoldier. Orig. a man

                        a pike                                                               in the Kabar dial.


Pile 1                an assembl. of things

                        laid one upon another

                        ME.,OF.,L pila = pillar,            bál,-vány          pillar                 palóc

                        pier, mote


Pill 1                 a small globular or                     Recipr. M — E*

                        rounded mass of med.               labda                ball                   palóc  

                        subst                                        labdacs, a small spherical body

                        ME.,MD or MLG pille

                        L pilula, dim. of pila =   Bál                   the sun-disk.     palóc

                        = ball


Pillar                 an upright shaft or                     bálvány an upright pole   palóc


                        ME pylere

                        L pila = pillar


Place                a particular portion of


                        ME.,OE plaetse, plaece                                                palóc

                        L platea = street

                        Gk plateia = broadway,            Recipr. M — E *

                        prop.fem. of platys =                lap                    a usually broad, flat surface.

                        = broad                                                            Fem. symbol in the Palóc



Plane 1 a flat, or level surf.                    Recipr. M — E*

                        L planum = level ground            lapos                flat                    palóc


Pod                  1. a small herd or school           Recipr. M — E*

                        esp. of seals/whales                  csapat              flock, pod         besenyő

                        2. Small flock of birds

                        Origin not known


Poke                to thrust against or                    bök                  poke                kabar

                        into something

                        ME poken

                        CF poach


Pole 1              a long, slender piece                 bál,bálvány       a pole               palóc

                        of wood or other                      balita                as above


                        ME.,OE pal

                        L palus = stake

                        cf. pale


Polish               to make smooth, glossy béla                  white light, shine   palóc

                        ME polishe(n)

                        L polire


Poor                 having little or                           pór                   a member of the lowest

                        nothing in the way                                             class of society avar

                        of wealth

                        ME povere

                        OF povre

                        L pauper

                        cF pauper


Port                  1. a town or place where          part                  shore, port                    avar

                        ships load

                        2. a place along the coast

                        where ships may take refuge

                        ME.,OE.,L portus


Priest                one whose office is to               arch.peres,                                           avar

                        perform relig. rites                     perest oldó       an ancient class of Magyar

                        ME preest,                                                       priesthood. (See Ipolyi)

                        OE preost

                        L presbiter


Pretzel              a crisp, dry bisquit

                        usually in the form of

                        a knot

                        G var. Bretzel

                        cf. ML bracellus =                    perec                orig. a ring, a ring/bracelet,

                        =bracelet                                                          a pretzel.                      avar


Prowl               to row or go about                    barangol           to roam                        avar


                        ME prollen

                        Origin not known


Prune               a variety of plum                       barack              peach. Orig. only a

                        ME., OE pruna                                     „round fruit”

                        L prunum = plum

                        prunus = plum tree


Punish              to subject to penalty                  bűntet               to punish           pannon

                        ME punish(e)

                        L punire


Pupa                an insect in transform.               bab                  something round and small

                        stage                                        bab                  bean, pea

                        NL., L girl, doll             baba, buba       a baby, a doll

                        cf. pupil, puppet                        babos               smthing with dots


Pupil2               an opening in the iris                  bab                  see above

                        of the eye

                        L pupilla


Puppet             an artificial figure,                      baba                 doll. See above

                        earlier poppet

                        ME popet, appar.der.of

                        MLG poppe = doll of

                        Roman origin. LL pupa


Puppy              a young dog

                        LL pupa = doll             baba                 doll


Puss                 1. a cat                                     suba                 originally something

                        2. Brit. a hare                                                   stringy or hairy    besenyő

                        3. a girl/woman

                        D. poes

                        LG puus–katte = cat

                        Sw. katte–pus = cat


Pot 1                an earthern, metallic or  fazék                pot                   besenyő

                        other container

                        ME.,OE pott

                        MLG pot

                        cf. F pot (? G)


Pyramid            a massive structure,etc. perem               border, tier       avar

                        L piramis                                  peremes           something tiered

                        Gk pyramis of Egyptian



Pyro                 3. used to mean „of,                  pír                    blush                avar

                        relating to, or concerned           piros                 red, the color of fire

                        with fire.”                                  forr                   to boil

                        t.Gk comb.form pyr = fire         parázs              ember



Rake 1             an implement with                     Recipr. M – E*

                        teeth                                         gereblye           rake                 körös

                        ME.,OE raca


Rake 4             to go or proceed, esp.              rohan                rake                 körös

                        with speed.

                        OE racian = go, hasten

                        Sw raka = run, rush


Rank                a number of persons                 rang                  rank, status       körös


                        forming a separate


                        F (obs) ranc

                        OF renc, reng

                        Gmc orig

                        cf. OE hring = ring                    kör                   circle                körös


Ravine              a long, deep, narrow                 ró                     to carve, to etch

                        valley                                        rovás                a furrow

                        F torrent of water                     Recipr. M — M** and M — E *

                                                                        barázda            a plowed furrow           avar


Raze                 to tear down, demolish  Recipr. M — E *

                        ME raser                                  súrol                 scrub, scour      szarmata

                        L rasus = scraped


Reel 1              a cylinder, a frame or

                        other device

                        ME rele

                        OE hreol                                  kör/kerül          circle/encircle                körös


Rib                   one of a series of                      Recipr.M — E *

                        long, slender, curved                 borda               rib                                avar


                        ME,OE.,c.G Rippe


Ribald              offensive, scurrilous

                        speech, etc.

                        ME ribaut

                        OF riber = dissipate

                        MHG riben = in heat

                        MD ribe = whore                     ribanc               whore               avar


Rich                 having wealth

                        ME, OE rice

                        G reich of Celtic orig.                Recipr. M — L ****

                        L rex                                        király                king                  körös


Ring                 circular band                             Recipr. M — E *

                        ME.,OE hring                           kör                   circle                körös

                        G. G Ring                                 karika               ring

                        Icel. hringr                                kereng              circular motion

                        cf. rank


River                a considerable natural

                        stream                                      Recipr. M — L ****

                        L ripa = bank                           part                  bank                 avar


Rob                  to deprive something                 rabol                to rob

                        by unlawful force

                        MR robbe(n)

                        OF robber

                        OHG roubon = rave


Robe                a long, loose, flowing                lebegő              flowing

                        gown                                        Recipr. M — E *

                        ME.,OE orig.: spoil,                  palást               an ornate robe

                        booty, see rob                                                                          avar


Rod                  a stick, wand, staff                    rúd                   rod                   török

                        ME.,OE rod, appar. akin

                        to Icel. rudda = kind of



Rot                   to undergo decomposition         rothad              to rot                török

                        ME, cf.Icel = rot

                        OE rotian = to rot


Rotary              a turning around on an axis        Recipr. M — E *

                        L rotarius                                  tér, tár, tűr        words for turning, returning

                        L rota = wheel                                                  (fem.principle vs. r–t, r–d

                                                                                                like rúd = pole) török


Rotten              in a state of decomp.                 rothadt             rotten                           török

                        ME roten

                        Skand.,cf.Icel rotinn


Rotund             rounded out, plump                   Recipr. M — E *

                        L rotundus                                terebélyes         rotund                         török               


Rouge 2           a reddish powder                      Recipr. M — L****

                        L rubeus = red                          pír                    blush                            avar

                                                                        piros                 red


Round              circular as a disk                       Recipr. M — E *                                  török

                        ME.,OF rond                           tér, tár, tűr        t–r group meaning circularity

                        L rotundus = wheel                                           in object and motion.



Rove                to wander about without           Recipr. M — E *

                        a definite destination                  barangol           rove                             avar

                        ME., Scand., cf.Icel rafa


Ruby                a red variety of corundum         Recipr. M — E* and M — L ****

                        ME,m OF rubi(s)                      piros                 red                               avar

                        L rubus = red


Ruin                 the remains of a fallen                rom                  ruin                  marmar


                        ME ruine

                        OF, L ruina = overthrow,



Rust                 the red or orange coating          rozsda              rust                   török

                        on iron, when exposed to


                        ME., OE rost



Saber               a heavy edged sword                szab                 to cut                besenyő

                        F sabre, sablée                         szablya             saber

                        t.G sabel

                        ? oriental origin


Sac 1               a baglike structure                     zsák                 sack                 kazár

                        in an animal or plant

                        containing fluid

                        L saccus


Sad                  sorrowful, mournful                   Recipr. M — E *

                        ME, OE saed                           gyász                bereavement     jász

                        G satt

                        G saths-full

                        L satis = enough

                        Gk haden = enough


Sail                   an expanse of canvas,               szél                   wind                 szarmata

                        spread to the wind to                száll                  to fly

                        make a vessel go

                        MR.,OE segl

                        G Segel


Saint                 L sanctus                                  arch. szem        saint (Ipolyi)    szemere


Salt                  a crystalline comp.                    só                     salt                   szarmata

                        ME.,OE sealt

                        G Salz

                        Icel., Goth salt

                        L sal


Sand                a fine debris of rocks                szem                 a tiny particle    szemere

                        ME.,OE., G sand                     szemcse            as above


Saros               a gulf in the NE part                  sár                    the shine of gold szarmata

                        of the Aegean, N. of                 (sár-arany         the yellow shine of gold)

                        Gallipoli peninsula                     (See comments on the Aegean)


Sea                  the salt water that                      (só?)                (salt)

                        covers the greater part

                        of the Earth

                        ME see

                        OE sae

                        D Zee, G See

                        Icel. saer

                        Goth saiws                               sajó                  something that flows

                                                                        Sajó                 a river in Hungary


Sear                 to burn or chafe the


                        ME sere(n)

                        OE searian, der. sear =

                        = dry                                        száraz               dry       szarmata


Search              to go and look through

                        carefully in seeking to

                        find something

                        ME search(en)

                        OF cerchier

                        L circare, der. circus =  kör                   circle                török/körös

                        = circle                         keres                to search


Seep                to pass gradually as                   szivárog            to seep             besenyő

                        liquid, through a                        szív, szip           to suck

                        porous substance. Ooze

                        ? var. of d. sipe,

                        OE sipian

                        MLG sipen


Segment           one of the parts into                  szak                 segment            székely

                        which anthing naturally  cikk,-ely           as above


                        L segmentum


Seiche              an occasional, rhythmical           sajó                  something flowing

                        movement from side to

                        side of the water of a lake

                        with fluct. of the water l

                        level t.Swiss F ? a graphic

                        adaptation of G Seiche =          sűlyed               to sink

                        = sinking


Selah                a word occurring                      szél                   wind

                        frequently in psalms                   szellem             spirit

                        Origin not known                    Szél(a)              name of God of the

                                                                                                Szolim group


Semen              impregnating fluid/                     szem                 seed                 szemere

                        male org.

                        L semen = seed


Series               a number of things                     sor                   series                török



Shade               the comparative darkness

                        caused by the interception

                        of rays of light. Refer to:


Shadow            ME.,OE sceaduve                    sötét                 dark

                        D schaduw

                        G Schatten


Shako              military cap                               csákó               military cap of Magyar orig.


Shame              the painful feeling                      szemérem         modesty, a sense of decency

                        arising from...                                                    (this is a very large word

                        ME.,OE sce(a)m                                              group with underlying

                        G Scham                                                          philosophy.)      szemere


Shin                  the front part of the                   sín                    rail

                        leg from the knee to

                        the ankle

                        OE scinu

                        ME s(c)hine

                        D scheen

                        G Scheine = thin plate


Shine                to give forth, glow                     saj                    shine. (arch.)

                        with light                                   sajgó                shiny

                        OE.,ME scinan

                        G scheinen


Ship                 any vessel used for                    Recipr. E — E ***

                        navigating                                 ship / water                               besenyő

                        ME.,OE scip                            Recipr. M — E *

                        D ship                                      visz                   to carry

                        G Schiff


Shiver 1            shake or tremble with                Recipr. M — E *

                        cold, fear, etc.                          fázni                 to be cold         besenyő

                        ME shivre(n)

                        Origin not known


Shoal 1 shallow                         sekély               shoal

                        ME schold, schald

                        OE sceald = shallow                                                                 kazár


Sickle               implement for cutting                 szike                 sickle

                        grain                                         szak                 segment. Both an

                        ME sikel                                                           important part of      

                        OE sikol                                                           the  symbolism    Székely

                        G Sichel                                   Recipr. M — M **

                        L secula                                    kés/szike          knife/sickle


Siécle               an age, a century, etc.               szak, szakasz    segment, part of something

                        ME.,t.OF sege, siege                szék                 seat                  székely

                        L sedes = seat


Sigh                  to let out one’s              sóhaj                sigh                  székely

                        breath audibly

                        ME siken

                        OE sican

                        Origin not know


Sing                  1. to utter words/sounds           zeng                 to resound,       szemere

                        with musical modulation                                    to sing

                        of the voice

                        2. to have a sensation

                        of ringing, humming

                        3. a musical sound

                        ME, OE singan


Sip                   to drink a little at a time szív, szip           to sip (as through a straw)

                        ME sippe                                 szippant            as above           besenyő

                        OE sypian = drink in


Siphon              a tube or conduit                       szívó                 something that sucks in

                        L sipho                                                 air, liquids, etc.   besenyő

                        Gk siphon


Slab                 broad, flat piece of stone           lap                    a flat surface     palóc

                        wood, etc.

                        ME slabbe, sclabbe

                        Origin not known


Slap                 a small blow esp. with               lapít                  to make something flat. To

                        open hand or something                                    slap

                        flat                                            lap                    a flat surface, object-

                        LG slapp, slappe = imit.                                                            s+palóc


Slow                taking or requiring a

                        comparatively long                    Recipr. M — E *

                        time.                                         lassú                 slow                 szarmata

                        ME.,OE slow = sluggish,


                        D sleeuw = sloth


Snatch              to make a sudden effort            csen, elcsen      to snitch           

                        to seize something

                        MR snacchen

                        Origin not known


Soap                a substance used for                 szappan            soap                 besenyő


                        ME sope

                        OE sape

                        G Seife


Sock                1. a short stocking                    zokni                sock

                        2. a light shoe used by

                        the Greeks and Romans

                        as symbol for comedy

                        ME sakke

                        OE sacc

                        L soccus


Son                  male child                                 szem                 one of the names of

                        ME sone                                                          the Sun. (large linguistic

                        OE sunu                                                           and philosophical back-

                        D zoon                                                             ground.)           szemere

                        G Sohn

                        Icel. sunr.


Song                6. musical/tuneful                      zeng                 to resonate. A musical sound

                        sounds                                      zene                 music                szemere

                        ME.,OE.,G sang

                        Icel. songr


Soup                a liquid food                             Recipr. M —E * and M — M **

                        F. suppe = soup, broth             víz                    water                besenyő

                        of Gmc. orig.

                        cf. OE suppan = sip                  szip                  sip

                        sopp = sop


South               cardinal point of comp.

                        opposite North

                        ME.,OE suth

                        OHG sund, akin to

                        G Sűd                                      süt                    to shine. To bake.


Speak              to utter words in a                     Recipr. M — E *

                        talking voice                             beszél               speak               besenyő

                        OE specan

                        Unexplained var.

                        of G Sprechen


Sphere             a solid geom. figure                   forog                to revolve         s+avar

                        generated by revolution

                        of a semicircle around

                        its diameter


Spin                 to make a yarn by                     fon                   (s)pin                s+pannon

                        drawing out, twisting

                        and winding fibers

                        ME spinne(n)

                        OE spinnen


Spiral               a single circle or                        see below                                 s+avar

                        ring of a spiral curve

                        ME spiralis


Spire 2             coil or spiral                              pörög, forog     spin, turn          s+avar

                        L spira

                        Gk speira = coil,



Spot                 a mark made by a                     pötty                spot                  s+besenyő

                        foreign matter                           pici                   little

                        ME spotte

                        Icel. spotti = bit, small



Staff                 a stick, pole, rod, etc                Recipr. M — E *

                        ME, OE staef                           bot (+ s )          staff                  s+besenyő

                        D staf                                       Recipr. E — E ***

                        G Stab                                     bat                   (s)taff


Stag                 adult male deer             (arch.) ágas      a deer.

                        ME stagge                                ákos                 as above

                        OE (unrecorded)stagga,

                        akin to

                        Icel. staggr = male fowl,



Stake               a stick, or post, pointed            ék                    wedge              kun

                        at one end

                        ME, OE staka

                        D staak

                        G Stake, akin to stick


Stele                 an upright slab, pillar                 álló                   standing

                        Gk standing block


Sturdy 1           strongly built, robust                  törhetetlen        sturdy

                        ME.,OF esturdy = dazed          törékeny           fragile

                        LL exturdire =deafen

                        (with chatter)m, der.

                        turdus = turtledove


Sum                 the aggregate of two or szem                 seed                 szemere

                        more numbers                           számol              to count

                        L summa                                  számos             numerous


Sun                  the star which is the                   szem                 the shape of a grain and

                        central body of the                                            the eye; the first, unevolved

                        solar system                                                      shape of the Sun, as                                                                                                      perceived

                        ME., OE sunne                                     by the ancient Magyars

                        G Sonne                                                                                   szemere


Sura                 one of the 124 chapters

                        of the Koran

                        t. Ar.m. surah = row, step,        sor                   row




Tap                  to strike lightly, but                    tapogat             to touch            besenyő

                        audibly                         Recipr. E —E ***

                        ME tappen                               tap / pat

                        F taper = strike, slap

                        of Gmc. origin


Tell                   to give an account,                    dal                    song                 török

                        or narrative

                        ME telle

                        OF tellan

                        D tellen = reckon, count

                        Icel. telja = tell, count


Thames            a river flowing from                   Temes              a river in Hungary. Names

                        SW to E through London                                  of both are connected with

                                                                                                the Szemere culture.

                                                                        Recipr. M — M**, M — E*

                                                                        nedű                 liquid


The                  def. art.                                    Recipr. M — E*

                        ME.,OE uninflected var.           az                        magyar

                        of that


That                 demonstrative pronoun  Recipr. M — E*

                        ME.,OE thaet, that, the az                     dem.pronoun    magyar

                        G das

                        Gk to


Toth                 Egyptian divinity,                       tud                   to know

                        god of learning,             tudás                knowledge

                        wisdom, magic

                        Inventor of numbers

                        and letters, Egypt.Tehut



Thou                the personal pronoun

                        of the 2nd person

                        ME.,OE thu

                        c.G and MD du

                        L te                                          te                     thou                  magyar


Throat              passage from the                       torok                throat

                        mouth to the stomach

                        ME,OE throte

                        cf. throttle


Thunder            a loud noise accomp.

                        by lightning

                        ME.,OE thunor

                        c.G Donner

                        Icel. Thorr, Thor, akin               dörög               thunder török

                        to L tonitrus = thunder


Tick 1              a light, sharp, recurring  Recipr. M — E *

                        click/beat                                  ketyeg              to tick

                        Late ME tek = little touch,                                (like a clock)

                        akin to

                        D tik, LG tikk = touch


Tickle               to touch/stroke lightly                csiklandoz        tickle

                        with fingers, a feather, etc.

                        ME tikel(en)

                        ? frequ. of tick1


Tire                  a hoop or band                         tér, tár, tűr        group of words, all meaning

                        ME tyre, spec. use of                                        a line returning within itself.

                        tire                                                                                                       török


Tithe                 the tenth part of...                     tized                 tithe, a tenth part    magyar

                        ME tithen                                 tíz                     ten

                        OE te/o/g/o/thian

                        v.der. Theogotha =

                        = tenth part


Tiu                   Engl.mythol. a god of                gyúl                  to ignite            magyar

                        the sky and of war, the 

                        equiv. of Tyr in Scand.

                        OE Tiw, god of war

                        See Tuesday


Toil                  hard, continuous work              törődés             hard work        török

                        ME toile(n)

                        t.AF toiler = strive,


                        L tudiculare = stir                      tesz                  to do


Torah               the 5 books of Moses               tűr                    to roll up something (as a

                        Heb.instruction, law                                          scroll).

                                                                        törvény law                   török


Tour                 a travel from place

                        to place

                        ME, t.F.g L tornus

                        Gk tornos = making a               tér                    a line returning within itself

                        circle                                                                                        török


Toy                  an object, often a                      Recipr. M — E *

                        small imitation of a                    játék                 toy                   jász

                        familiar thing

                        ME toye = dalliance

                        Origin not known


Tree                 a perennial plant with

                        wooden trunk

                        ME.,OE treo(w)

                        c.Icel. tre

                        Goth triu, akin to

                        Gk drus = tree, oak                  tölgy                 oak                  török


Troll 2              in Skand.folklore one                törpe                dwarf               török

                        of a race of supernatural


                        T.Scand.,cf.Icel troll


Tub                  a vessel, or receptacle               Recipr. E — E ***

                        to bathe in                                                        tub / water        besenyő

                        ME tubbe                                                         basin

                        c.LG tubbe

                        Origin not known


Tuesday           Martis dies                               tűz                    fire


Tune                 a succession of musical dana                 song                 szemere

                        sounds                                      Recipr. M — M** and M — E *

                        ME unexplained var.              nóta                  song

                        of tone


Turban             a form of headdress,                 tűr,                   to wind török

                        wound around directly

                        the head

                        Turkish tulbend

                        t.Ar. dullband

                        t. Pers., Hindu


Turn                 to cause to move                      tér                    to return           török

                        around an axis                          térül–fordul       coming and going

                        ME,OE turnian

                        L tornare


Turret               a small tower, usually                torony              tower. (it is based on the t–r

                        forming part of a larger                          word group, denoting a

                        structure                                                           circular pattern. Most ancient

                        ME. touret                                                        Magyar churches were built

                        t.OF touret, dim. of                                           in a circular pattern.)

                        tour = tower                                                                                         török


Turtle               any of the chelonia

                        Sp. tortuga

                        LL tortuca, der. of

                        tortus = twisted             tűr, gyűr            to wind, to twist            török


Tutor                employed to instruct                  tud                   to know

                        ME.,t.L protector                     tudor                someone who knows



Ural                  Ranges from the Arctic uralkodni          to rule over                   török

                        ocean almost to the                   uralni                to treat with respect

                        Caspian Sea. Highest

                        mountain is Mt. Telpos,

                        5540 ft.



Vail                  to cause or allow to                  vályat               a groove           palóc

                        descend lower

                        ME vale

                        L ad vallen


Valhalla            Scand. myth.                            possible relationships:

                        Val = hall                                  vár                   castle

                        NL.t.Icel. valhöll =                    hal                    to sink, to die    körös

                        = hall of the slain


Vapor              a visible exhalation                    por                   dust

                        as fog, mist, condensed pára                 vapor               avar

                        steam, etc.

                        t.L steam

                        r. ME vapour


Vara                 a unit of legth in Sp.                  Bálvány            a pole, Palóc symbol of

                        and Portugese, 32–43”                         Bál; male symbol

                        t.Sp.Pg rod, pole

                        L vara = forked pole                 villa                  fork. A forked tree or pole

                                                                                                was the symbol of Vilona,

                                                                                                the Palóc mother Earth


Vary                 to change or alter                      változik to change

                        ME, t.L variare


Vault                an architect.structure                 váll                   shoulder (of a person, a hill,

                        ME vaute                                                         a rounded structure.)

                        OF vaute

                        g.Rom volta

                        L volutus = turned,



Verge               the edge, rim or margin part                  rim, edge                      avar

                        of something

                        ME.,t.F.g L virga = rod


Vizier               a principal helper of                  vezet                to lead              besenyő

                        a Mohammedan sovereign        vezér                leader, ruler

                        Turk. vezír

                        t.Ar.wazir = bearer of



Vouch              to answer (for) as

                        being certain

                        ME vouche                               bizonyít to testify

                        F voucher, akin to L

                        vocare = call



Wale                a streak, stripe or                      ver                   to hit

                        ridge produced on the

                        skin by the stroke of

                        a rod or whip: a welt

                        ME, OE walu = weal,               váll                   a ridge



Wale 2             Scot. and N.Engl. to                 választás           wale

                        choose ME wal(e),

                        Scand., cf.Icel

                        val = choice

                        G wahl


Walk                an upright work or                    fal                     wall                  palóc


                        ME.,OE.,L vallum


Ward               a division, or district                  vár                   castle                avar

                        of a city                                    várta                 sentry box

                        ME.,OE weardian

                        M D waerden

                        G warten


Ware 1             articles of merchandise  árú                   ware

                        ME.,OE waru

                        G Ware


Wash               to apply a liquid, esp.                ázik                  to soak             besenyő

                        water for the purpose                (water, or víz is related to this subject

                        of cleansing                               and may be the base of these words.)

                        ME.,OE wascan

                        D wasschen

                        G waschen

                        Icel. vascan


Water               a transparent, taste                    víz                    water                besenyő

                        and odorless liquid

                        ME.,OE water

                        D water

                        G Wasser

                        Icel. vatn

                        Goth vato


Wattle              rods/stakes interwoven

                        with twigs or branches

                        for making fences or                 Recipr. M — E *

                        walls.                                        sövény              wattle               besenyő

                        ME wattel                                sző                   to weave

                        OE watul = covering

                        var. of waetta =

                        = bandage


Weak               liable to yield, break,etc.

                        ME weik

                        t.Scand.,cf.Icel veikr

                        G weich                                    puha                 soft


Weald              poetic: an open country föld                  Earth

                        ME weld

                        OE weald = forest

                        var. of wald, wold


Well 2              a hole drilled into                      forrás               spring

                        the ground, etc.             vella                 fork, a V shaped opening

                        ME welle                                                                                  palóc

                        OE wellan

                        D wellen

                        Icel.vella, var.of

                        viellan, accus. of

                        weallan = boil


West                10. the direction                        este                  evening

                        of the sunset.

                        ME.,OE.,cD., G


                        Icel. vestr


Wet                  covered, or soaked                   vízes                 vet                    besenyő

                        in water

                        ME wett, wete

                        OE waetan = to wet

                        ME weet

                        OE waet

                        Icel. vatr


Whale              any of the large                         bálna                whale               palóc

                        marine mammals

                        ME., OE hwael

                        MHG val

                        Icel. hvair


Woman            a female human             manyó              woman


                        ME., OE wifman,                     Recipr. M — E *

                        wif = female                              Firuna               Mother Earth of the

                                                                                                Avar group


Wood              a hard, fibrous


                        ME.,OE wudu, earlier


                        c.Icel. vidhr

                        OHG witu

                        O Irish fid                                 fűz                    willow


Wrest               to twist, or turn             birok                wrest                avar

                        ME wreste(n)

                        OE wraestan

                        c.Icel reista, akin

                        to wrist


Write                to trace or form                        Recipr. M — E *

                        characters, letters,                     rov                   to carve            avar

                        words, etc. on the                     rovás                carved writing

                        surface of something                 ró                     to write

                        ME., OE writan

                        G reissen = to tear

                        Icel. rita = write


Y (e csoport szavai jász őstörzsünkkel kapcsolatosak)

Yard2              a piece of enclosed                   kert                  yard. (Both mean an enclosed

                        ground                                                              ground. The k–r group is

                        ME yerd                                                           from the Körös, the y–r

                        OE geard                                                         group of words from the

                        D gaorol                                                           Jász word group.

                        Icel. gardhr

                        Goth gard = house


Yea                  yes                                           jó                     good.

                        ME ye, ya

                        OE gea

                        D.,Icel.,G.,Goth ja


Yes                  affirmative expression                jó (+az)            good. This is good.

                        ME., OE gese, appar.f.                         Affirmative. Der.of the

                        gea = yes+si = be it                                          Jász name of God (Jó).


Yoke                contrivance for joining   iga                    yoke

                        together a pair of draft


                        ME yok

                        OE geok

                        D juk

                        G Joch

                        Icel. ok

                        L iugum


Youth               the condition of

                        being young

                        ME youthe

                        OE geoguth                              jó                     good

                        G yugend


Y–lang-y–lang  An annouaceous                       (isp)iláng–(isp)iláng  the beginning of

                        tree, canangium                                     a childrens’ song

                        adoratum, or cananga

                        adorata, etc.

                        Flowers are used for

                        their perfume.

                        Growing in the Philippines

                        and Java


Yule                 Christmas                                             jó                     good

                        ME yole

                        OE geol(a)

                        Icel. jol



Zeal                  ardor for a person,                    cél                    zeal

                        cause, etc.

                        L zelus

                        Gk zelos, der.

                        zeein = boil



F.,G zickzack                                                   szak                 a small part of something

                                                                        cikk                  as above


                                                                        zeg–zúg            zig–zag székely/kazár


















Magyar                27

Jász                      24

Körös                   83

Kun                      41

Hun                         3

Palóc                   113

Kazár                   37

Török                  23

Avar                     75

Kabar                  30

Pannon                   9

Besenyő               64

Székely                    7

Szemere                 26

Szarmata                 7

Marmar                  14




                             A       B       C       D       E       F       G       H       I       

Magyar                8        -        -        2        3        -        1        -        3       

Jász                     4        -        -        -        5        -        -        -        1       

Körös                   7        -        34      -        4        1        14      9        -       

Kun                      8        -        7        3        3        -        2        6        -       

Hun                      1        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1       

Palóc                    4        28      -        1        2        5         -       -         -      

Kazár                   1        -        11      5        -        -        10      2        -       

Török                  1        -        -        2        -        -         -        -       -       

Avar                     1        35      -        4        1        5        -        -        1       

Kabar                  -        12      10      -        -        1        2        -        -       

Pannon                -        3        3        -         -         -         -        -        -       

Besenyő               -        26      5        4        -        4        -        -        -       

Székely                -        -        3        -        -        -        -        -        -       

Szemere               -        -        2        -        -        -        -        -        -       

Szarmata             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -       

Marmar               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -       

J        K       L       M      N       O       P       R       S

Magyar                -        -        -        5        -        -        -        -        -       

Jász                     7        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1       

Körös                   -        2        2        -        -        1        -        7        1       

Kun                      -        4        -        8        -        1        -        -        1       

Hun                      -        -        -        1        -        -        -        -        -       

Palóc                    -        -        13      -        -        -        22      -        2       

Kazár                   -        6        -        -        -        -        -        -        1       

Török                  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6        1       

Avar                     -        -        -        -        -        -        12      8        3       

Kabar                  -        1        -        -        -        -        4        -        -       

Pannon                -        -        -        -        -        -        2        -        1       

Besenyő               -        -        -        -        -        -        6        -        11     

Székely                -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4       

Szemere               1                           9        -        -        -        -        9       

Szarmata             -        -        1        5        -        -        -        1        5       

Marmar               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1        -       



T       U       V       W      Y

Magyar                5        -        -        -        -       

Jász                      6        -        -        -        6       

Körös                   -        -        -        -        -       

Kun                      -        -        -        -        -       

Hun                      -        -        -        -        -       

Palóc                    -        -        3        3        -       

Kazár                   1        -        -        -        -       

Török                  12      1        -        -        -       

Avar                     -        -        2        3        -       

Kabar                  -        -        -        -        -       

Pannon                -        -        -        -        -       

Besenyő               2        -        1        4        -       

Székely                -        -        -        -        -       

Szemere               1        -        -        -        -       

Szarmata             -        -        -        -        -       

Marmar               -        -        -        -        -       


Az itt vizsgált össz-anyag 640 szó

A megvizsgált anyag 573 tétel.


A fennmaradt 67 szó sorsa a következő:

Az egymássalhangzós szavak némelye beazonositva nem lett – ősmagyar csoportositásuk helyes, s ez a mostani eredményhez hozzáadható.

Az ezen túl fennmaradó néhány tétel angolon kivüli, s ezek figyelmen kivül maradtak.


Legnagyobb számban a palócok vannak képviselve -- 113 szóval

Utánna a körös 83 számmal,

az avar 75 számmal.


Nyelvi nyomok                                 Földrajzi nyomok


Palóc          113                                          11

Körös         83                                            15

Avar           75                                            4

Besenyő      64                                            15

Kun            41                                            7

Kazár         37                                            1

Kabar         30                                            1

Magyar      27                                            5

Szemere     26                                            5

Jász            24                                            15

Török         23                                            9

Pannon       9                                              4

Szarmata    7                                              3

Marmar     7                                              1

Székely       7                                              1

Fehér Hun  1                                              1














Földrajzi nevek megoszlása


Törzsek               Hegyek       Folyók        Szigetek               Összesen

Magyar                3                 -                  2                           5

Szarmata             2                 1                 -                            3

Besenyő               6                 2                 -                            8

Jász                      3                 9                 3                           15

Palóc                    11               -                  -                            11

Avar                     1                 3                 -                            4

Kazár                   1                 -                  -                            1

Pannon/török      2                 1                 -                            3

Körös                   4                 5                 6                           15

Kun                      1                 3                 3                           7

Hun/kun/avar      5                 2                 -                            7

Szemere               1                 2                 2                           5

Magyar/török      1                 -                  -                            1

P/K/B/Palóc         -                  14               -                            14

Pannon/körös      -                  4                 -                            4

Török                  -                  9                 -                            9

Pannon                -                  -                  2                           2

Fehér hun            -                  -                  1                           1

Székely                -                  -                  1                           1

Marmar               -                  -                  1                           1





Mindenek előtt figyelmeztetem önmagunkat ismételten arra, hogy ezen őstörzsek földrajzi területeket, nyelvcsoportokat, s a hozzájuk tartozó foglalkozási ágakat jelentik, nem a történelmi idők politikai egységeit képviselő népeket.

Ezen őstörzsek az emberiség ősalapjait képezik, s éppen ezért mindenütt megtalálhatók, illetve ezen őstörzsek minden későbbi műveltségi kör összetevői, s nyelvtörvényeiken keresztül igen könnyen felismerhetők.

Kérdésünk soha ne az legyen, hogy ez, vagy az a nép rokonunk-e, hanem mely őstörzsek a fő összetevői. Éppen ezért éppen olyan tudománytalan például a finnugor nyelv elméletének tagadása, mint ahogy egyenjogúsitása is az volt. Náluk is, mint bárhol másutt, ezen őstörzsek erős nyoma található. Vikár Béla Kalevala forditását olvasva feltünt Mariatta történetében jelentkező erős szemere hagyomány, s nem kerülhető el neve marmar kapcsolatának felismerése sem.

A Brit Szigetekkel kapcsolatos kis szemelvényem csak ennyi: szemelvény, mégpedig az angol nyelv könnyen felismerhető, magyarral azonos szavainak jegyzékét vettem vizsgálatom alá. Ezen túlmenően természetesen ott van az angol nyelv teljes szótári anyaga, földrajzi neveinek jegyzéke, hagyományai, néprajza, melyeket bele kell vonni a teljes képet adó tanulmányozásba, s a jövő feladatai közé tartozik.

Utódnépek műveltségi összetevőinek teljes értékű vizsgálata csak nyelvünk segitségével lehetséges, s éppen ezért szent kötelességünk számukra minden lehető segitséget megadni.


A Brit Szigeteken legerősebben képviselt őskori törzsek a jász. körös, palóc és besenyő.


Érdekes hogy csak egy helyen jelenik meg a fehér hun, székely és marmar törzs.


Kevert helyek magyarázata:

néha a folyó neve egyik őstörzsé, mellékfolyója a másiké, hasonlóan egy hegy csúcsa és völgye esetében.


Ezen őstörzsek irták be nevüket a szigetek földrajzába, majd ezután következtek a későbbi bevándorlók. A kevert nevek azt is elárulják, hogy ritkán indultak el egyedül az útkeresők: Iona szigetén már akkor együtt találjuk a jászokat és kunokat.


A fehér-hun, székely és marmar törzsek földrajzi és nyelvi nyoma gyér, ennek ellenére a nép emlékezetében, legendáikban nemcsak megtalálhatók, de élő kincset jelentenek.


Az őstörök és szarmata törzs hagyományainak köszönhetik az Arthur legendát és a benne foglalt magas eszmeiséget.


Hajós jász népünk korai jelenléte könnyen érthető, s az, hogy a szigetek földrajzába korán beirták nevüket. Őstörzsi jelenlétükhöz hozzá kell csatolni nyugateurópai letelepedési helyeiket, melyek között előkelő helyet foglalnak el a Brit szigetek, ezek között első sorban Iona szigete és Argyll tartománya, melyek korai jász jelenlét emlékét őrizték meg. Műveltség terén nem meglepő, hogy például a magasabb tudományokat elsajátitók fekete jász köpenyben és a jászok négyszögletes fejfedőjével – mely jelképes viráguknak, a jázminnak a rajza -- jelennek meg az angol területeken napjainkig.


Körös őstörzsünk diszitő vonalai, vallási emlékei sziget-szerte megtalálhatók: kőköreik, kallós istenségük óriás rajza csak a legnyilvánvalóbb emlékeik.[1]


Palóc őstörzsünk korai és erős jelenléte érthető, hiszen műveltségük az élet, a lélek fennmaradásával kapcsolatos. A szigetekre érkezésük előtt már alapitottak műveltségi területeket nyugat Európában, mint például a flamand területeken.


Besenyők, mint viz mellett élő műveltség nagyszerű hajósaiként ugyancsak a korai letelepedők közé tartozotak, a szigetek nyelvében, földrajzában, műveltségében egyaránt erős nyomokat hagytak.


Az adatokat vizsgálva néha azt találjuk, hogy a földrajzi nevekben ritkábban előforduló egy-egy őstörzs nyoma a nyelvben erősebben mutatkozik: ezt a letelepedett élettel kapcsolatos lakosság szaporodásának tudom be.


Ilyen a letelepedett életre született a magyar törzs, melynek később az Mc, Mac előnevű skótok körében hatalmas szóbokrot alkot. Ugyan ekkor eredetregéjüket is magukkal hozva a skót nép ősregéinek részévé tették.


Őstörök törzsünk igen korai jelenlétének tanuja nyugat Európában Turán istennőjük őskori domborműve[2], Tűringia, Bajorország őstörök műveltségű lakossága. Kárpátmedencei ősműveltségük holdudvara Sumeriától a Brit szigetekig nyomon követhető. Ez utóbbinál maguk után hagyták a nemes gondolkodás csiráit Arthur legendájukban.


Avar őstörzsünk kert, virág és várépitő tehetsége máig élő nyomokat hagyott.


Pannon őstörzsünk a nap- és fény-tisztelet helyei.


Kabar őstörzsünk a vizek, folyók őslegendáit őrizte meg.


Fehér hun törzsünk hatása hasonló, s kabar őstörzsünk műveltségével van kapcsolatban.


Őstörzseink Kárpátmedencén kivüli szereplése az u.n. „történelmi” korokat messze megelőzik, s a világteremtés nagy történéseit vetiti az általuk lakott területekre.







A bennünket körülvevő indoeurópai népek nyelvészete csak saját nyelvutásuk, nyelvhasználatuk határáig él éppen úgy, mint ahogy mi is csak mindenkori tudásunk határáig tudjuk felismerni a nyelvünkbe ágyazott, természettudományi valóságot, ami viszont őseink össztudásának a kezdetektől része volt.  Az indoeurópai nyelvészek sem tudják az ismeretlent kutatni, s éppen ezért nyelvünk adta lehetőségeket nekünk, magyaroknak kell feltárni, ezzel a világ tudáskincsét gyarapítva.

Új gondolatnak látszik, merésznek, de alapos tanulmányozás után igazsága önmagát jelenti ki: népünk ősnép, származása a Teremtés első pillanatához vezet, s ez a valóság nyelvébe van ágyazva. Nyelve ősnyelv, melynek ágai-bogai a későbbi nyelvek. Egyszerűbben: a világ népei gyermekeink, műveltségüket szülőházukban sajátították el, környezetük, életharcaik szükségei szerint változtatták is a tanultakat, némely ismeret teljesen ki is kopott emlékezetükből. Ez a folyamat érthető. Sajnos viszont, hogy az így keletkezett nyelvekben megbomlott a szerves műveltség képviselte lelki alap, melyen keresztül Isten gyermekeinek ismerhetik meg önmagukat. Ezt a tudást, ezt a lelki emelkedettséget, ezt az Istentől örökölt szeretetet kell ismét életük részévé tenni.





Nyelvészeti rész


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Az ősműveltség, Magyar Adorján, Kézirat



A kelta anyag vonatkozó irodalma


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[1] Tomory Kezdeteink, a Miskolci Bölcsész Egyesület kiadása Dr. Gyárfás Ágnes gondozásában.

[2] Tomory Kezdeteink, a Miskolci Bölcsész Egyesület kiadása Dr. Gyárfás Ágnes gondozásában .